Background: Homocysteine and taurine are non-proteinogenic sulfur-containing
amino acids with numerous important physiological roles. Homocysteine and taurine are
considered to be neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the first showing clear hyperexcitability
role, while the second is known by its inhibitory and neuroprotective properties.
Objective: In this article we addressed the role of homocysteine and its related metabolite
homocysteine thiolactone in the development of seizures, focusing on its experimental models
in vivo, potential mechanisms of proepileptogenic activity via interactions with glutamatergic
neurotransmission, sodium pump activity, oxidative stress, cholinergic system and
NO-mediated neuronal signaling, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological
approaches to modulate its proconvulsive activity. Additionally, herein we will focus on
taurine neuroprotective effects linked with its anticonvulsive properties and mediated by
taurine interactions with GABA-ergic and glutamatergic system and oxidative stress.