The Role of Diet in the Pathogenesis of Cholesterol Gallstones

Author(s): Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Gema Frühbeck, Maria De Angelis, Ornella de Bari, David Q.-H. Wang, Frank Lammert, Piero Portincasa*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 19 , 2019


  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans. There is a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth. In particular, dietary models characterized by increased energy intake with highly refined sugars and sweet foods, high fructose intake, low fiber contents, high fat, consumption of fast food and low vitamin C intake increase the risk of gallstone formation. On the other hand, high intake of monounsaturated fats and fiber, olive oil and fish (ω-3 fatty acids) consumption, vegetable protein intake, fruit, coffee, moderate alcohol consumption and vitamin C supplementation exert a protective role.

The effect of some confounding factors (e.g., physical activity) cannot be ruled out, but general recommendations about the multiple beneficial effects of diet on cholesterol gallstones must be kept in mind, in particular in groups at high risk of gallstone formation.

Keywords: Caloric intake, diet, fibers, macronutrients, obesity, weight loss.

[1]
Attili, A.F.; Capocaccia, R.; Carulli, N.; Festi, D.; Roda, E.; Barbara, L.; Capocaccia, L.; Menotti, A.; Okolicsanyi, L.; Ricci, G.; Lalloni, L.; Mariotti, S.; Sama, C.; Scafato, E. Factors associated with gallstone disease in the MICOL experience. Hepatology, 1997, 26(4), 809-818.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.510260401] [PMID: 9328297]
[2]
Portincasa, P.; Moschetta, A.; Palasciano, G. Cholesterol gallstone disease. Lancet, 2006, 368(9531), 230-239.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69044-2] [PMID: 16844493]
[3]
Everhart, J.E.; Ruhl, C.E. Burden of digestive diseases in the United States part I: overall and upper gastrointestinal diseases. Gastroenterology, 2009, 136(2), 376-386.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2008.12.015] [PMID: 19124023]
[4]
Portincasa, P.; Wang, D.Q.H. Gallstonesamada’s Textbook of Gastroenterology, 6th ed; Podolsky, K.D; Camilleri, M; Fitz, J.G; Kalloo, A.N; Shanahan, F.; Wang, T.C, Eds.; Wiley-Blackwell: UK, 2015, pp. 1808-1834..
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118512074.ch89]
[5]
Portincasa, P.; Wang, D.Q.H. GallstonesYamada’s Atlas of Gastroenterology, 5th ed;; Podolsky, K.D.; Camilleri, M; Fitz, J.G; Kalloo, A.N.; Shanahan, F.; Wang, T.C, Eds.; Wiley-Blackwell: UK,, 2016, pp. 335-353.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118512104.ch40]
[6]
Farthing, M.; Roberts, S.E.; Samuel, D.G.; Williams, J.G.; Thorne, K.; Morrison-Rees, S.; John, A.; Akbari, A.; Williams, J.C. Survey of digestive health across Europe: Final report. Part 1: The burden of gastrointestinal diseases and the organisation and delivery of gastroenterology services across Europe. United European Gastroenterol. J., 2014, 2(6), 539-543.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640614554154] [PMID: 25452850]
[7]
Wang, D.Q.; Afdhal, N.H. Genetic analysis of cholesterol gallstone formation: searching for Lith (gallstone) genes. Curr. Gastroenterol. Rep., 2004, 6(2), 140-150.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-004-0042-1] [PMID: 15191694]
[8]
Everhart, J.E.; Khare, M.; Hill, M.; Maurer, K.R. Prevalence and ethnic differences in gallbladder disease in the United States. Gastroenterology, 1999, 117(3), 632-639.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(99)70456-7] [PMID: 10464139]
[9]
Sandler, R.S.; Everhart, J.E.; Donowitz, M.; Adams, E.; Cronin, K.; Goodman, C.; Gemmen, E.; Shah, S.; Avdic, A.; Rubin, R. The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States. Gastroenterology, 2002, 122(5), 1500-1511.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.32978] [PMID: 11984534]
[10]
Everhart, J.E.; Ruhl, C.E. Burden of digestive diseases in the United States Part III: Liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. Gastroenterology, 2009, 136(4), 1134-1144.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.02.038] [PMID: 19245868]
[11]
Shaffer, E.A. Epidemiology and risk factors for gallstone disease: has the paradigm changed in the 21st century? Curr. Gastroenterol. Rep., 2005, 7(2), 132-140.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-005-0051-8] [PMID: 15802102]
[12]
Shiffman, M.L.; Kaplan, G.D.; Brinkman-Kaplan, V.; Vickers, F.F. Prophylaxis against gallstone formation with ursodeoxycholic acid in patients participating in a very-low-calorie diet program. Ann. Intern. Med., 1995, 122(12), 899-905.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-122-12-199506150-00002] [PMID: 7755224]
[13]
Li, V.K.; Pulido, N.; Fajnwaks, P.; Szomstein, S.; Rosenthal, R.; Martinez-Duartez, P. Predictors of gallstone formation after bariatric surgery: a multivariate analysis of risk factors comparing gastric bypass, gastric banding, and sleeve gastrectomy. Surg. Endosc., 2009, 23(7), 1640-1644.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-008-0204-6] [PMID: 19057954]
[14]
Kamrath, R.O.; Plummer, L.J.; Sadur, C.N.; Adler, M.A.; Strader, W.J.; Young, R.L.; Weinstein, R.L. Cholelithiasis in patients treated with a very-low-calorie diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1992, 56(1)(Suppl.), 255S-257S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/56.1.255S] [PMID: 1615894]
[15]
Yang, H.; Petersen, G.M.; Roth, M.P.; Schoenfield, L.J.; Marks, J.W. Risk factors for gallstone formation during rapid loss of weight. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1992, 37(6), 912-918.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01300390] [PMID: 1587196]
[16]
Liddle, R.A.; Goldstein, R.B.; Saxton, J. Gallstone formation during weight-reduction dieting. Arch. Intern. Med., 1989, 149(8), 1750-1753.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1989.00390080036009] [PMID: 2669662]
[17]
Broomfield, P.H.; Chopra, R.; Sheinbaum, R.C.; Bonorris, G.G.; Silverman, A.; Schoenfield, L.J.; Marks, J.W. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and aspirin on the formation of lithogenic bile and gallstones during loss of weight. N. Engl. J. Med., 1988, 319(24), 1567-1572. [see comments]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198812153192403] [PMID: 3200265]
[18]
Shiffman, M.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Kellum, J.M.; Moore, E.W. Changes in gallbladder bile composition following gallstone formation and weight reduction. Gastroenterology, 1992, 103(1), 214-221.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(92)91115-K] [PMID: 1612328]
[19]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Weight cycling and risk of gallstone disease in men. Arch. Intern. Med., 2006, 166(21), 2369-2374.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.21.2369] [PMID: 17130391]
[20]
Syngal, S.; Coakley, E.H.; Willett, W.C.; Byers, T.; Williamson, D.F.; Colditz, G.A. Long-term weight patterns and risk for cholecystectomy in women. Ann. Intern. Med., 1999, 130(6), 471-477.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-130-6-199903160-00003] [PMID: 10075614]
[21]
Amaral, J.F.; Thompson, W.R. Gallbladder disease in the morbidly obese. Am. J. Surg., 1985, 149(4), 551-557.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9610(85)80055-6] [PMID: 3985293]
[22]
Shiffman, M.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Kellum, J.M.; Brewer, W.H.; Moore, E.W. Gallstone formation after rapid weight loss: a prospective study in patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for treatment of morbid obesity. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1991, 86(8), 1000-1005.
[PMID: 1858735]
[23]
Lammert, F.; Gurusamy, K.; Ko, C.W.; Miquel, J.F.; Méndez-Sánchez, N.; Portincasa, P.; van Erpecum, K.J.; van Laarhoven, C.J.; Wang, D.Q. Gallstones. Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers, 2016, 2, 16024.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.24] [PMID: 27121416]
[24]
Wang, D.Q.; Cohen, D.E.; Carey, M.C. Biliary lipids and cholesterol gallstone disease. J.Lip.Res, S406-S411. 2009.
[25]
Katsika, D.; Grjibovski, A.; Einarsson, C.; Lammert, F.; Lichtenstein, P.; Marschall, H.U. Genetic and environmental influences on symptomatic gallstone disease: a Swedish study of 43,141 twin pairs. Hepatology, 2005, 41(5), 1138-1143.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.20654] [PMID: 15747383]
[26]
Lammert, F.; Miquel, J.F. Gallstone disease: from genes to evidence-based therapy. J. Hepatol., 2008, 48(Suppl. 1), S124-S135.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2008.01.012] [PMID: 18308417]
[27]
Lammert, F.; Sauerbruch, T. Mechanisms of disease: the genetic epidemiology of gallbladder stones. Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2005, 2(9), 423-433.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncpgasthep0257] [PMID: 16265433]
[28]
Wang, D.Q.H.; Zhang, L.; Wang, H.H. High cholesterol absorption efficiency and rapid biliary secretion of chylomicron remnant cholesterol enhance cholelithogenesis in gallstone-susceptible mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2005, 1733(1), 90-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2004.12.005] [PMID: 15749059]
[29]
Wittenburg, H.; Lammert, F. Genetic predisposition to gallbladder stones. Semin. Liver Dis., 2007, 27(1), 109-121.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960174] [PMID: 17295180]
[30]
Diehl, A.K. Epidemiology and natural history of gallstone disease. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am., 1991, 20(1), 1-19.
[PMID: 2022415]
[31]
Sherlock, S.; Dooley, J. Diseases of the liver and biliary system. In: Blackwell Science; Oxford, 2002.
[32]
Trotman, B.W.; Ostrow, J.D.; Soloway, R.D. Pigment vs cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition. Am. J. Dig. Dis., 1974, 19(7), 585-590.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01073011] [PMID: 4835328]
[33]
Attili, A.F.; Carulli, N.; Roda, E.; Barbara, B.; Capocaccia, L.; Menotti, A.; Okoliksanyi, L.; Ricci, G.; Capocaccia, R.; Festi, D. Epidemiology of gallstone disease in Italy: prevalence data of the Multicenter Italian Study on Cholelithiasis (M.I.COL.). Am. J. Epidemiol., 1995, 141(2), 158-165.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a117403] [PMID: 7817971]
[34]
Stinton, L.M.; Myers, R.P.; Shaffer, E.A. Epidemiology of gallstones. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am., 2010, 39(2), 157-169. vii. [vii].
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gtc.2010.02.003] [PMID: 20478480]
[35]
Grundy, S.M.; Barnett, J.P. Metabolic and health complications of obesity. Dis. Mon., 1990, 36(12), 641-731.
[PMID: 2261844]
[36]
Grundy, S.M. Metabolic syndrome scientific statement by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2005, 25(11), 2243-2244.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000189155.75833.c7] [PMID: 16258150]
[37]
Grundy, S.M.; Cleeman, J.I.; Daniels, S.R.; Donato, K.A.; Eckel, R.H.; Franklin, B.A.; Gordon, D.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Savage, P.J.; Smith, S.C., Jr; Spertus, J.A.; Costa, F. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation, 2005, 112(17), 2735-2752.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404] [PMID: 16157765]
[38]
Eckel, R.H.; Grundy, S.M.; Zimmet, P.Z. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet, 2005, 365(9468), 1415-1428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66378-7] [PMID: 15836891]
[39]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Prospective study of abdominal adiposity and gallstone disease in US men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 80(1), 38-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.1.38] [PMID: 15213025]
[40]
Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation, 2002, 106(25), 3143-3421.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/circ.106.25.3143] [PMID: 12485966]
[41]
Grundy, S.M. A constellation of complications: the metabolic syndrome. Clin. Cornerstone, 2005, 7(2-3), 36-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1098-3597(05)80066-3] [PMID: 16473259]
[42]
Zimmet, P.; Magliano, D.; Matsuzawa, Y.; Alberti, G.; Shaw, J. The metabolic syndrome: a global public health problem and a new definition. J. Atheroscler. Thromb., 2005, 12(6), 295-300.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.12.295] [PMID: 16394610]
[43]
Alberti, K.G.; Zimmet, P.; Shaw, J. Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet. Med., 2006, 23(5), 469-480.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01858.x] [PMID: 16681555]
[44]
Grundy, S.M. Cholesterol gallstones: a fellow traveler with metabolic syndrome? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 80(1), 1-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.1.1] [PMID: 15213019]
[45]
Banim, P.J.; Luben, R.N.; Bulluck, H.; Sharp, S.J.; Wareham, N.J.; Khaw, K.T.; Hart, A.R. The aetiology of symptomatic gallstones quantification of the effects of obesity, alcohol and serum lipids on risk. Epidemiological and biomarker data from a UK prospective cohort study (EPIC-Norfolk). Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011, 23(8), 733-740.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e3283477cc9] [PMID: 21623190]
[46]
Friedman, G.D.; Kannel, W.B.; Dawber, T.R. The epidemiology of gallbladder disease: observations in the Framingham Study. J. Chronic Dis., 1966, 19(3), 273-292.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(66)90132-9] [PMID: 5910970]
[47]
Völzke, H.; Baumeister, S.E.; Alte, D.; Hoffmann, W.; Schwahn, C.; Simon, P.; John, U.; Lerch, M.M. Independent risk factors for gallstone formation in a region with high cholelithiasis prevalence. Digestion, 2005, 71(2), 97-105.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000084525] [PMID: 15775677]
[48]
Maclure, K.M.; Hayes, K.C.; Colditz, G.A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C. Weight, diet, and the risk of symptomatic gallstones in middle-aged women. N. Engl. J. Med., 1989, 321(9), 563-569.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198908313210902] [PMID: 2761600]
[49]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Central adiposity, regional fat distribution, and the risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gut, 2006, 55(5), 708-714.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.076133] [PMID: 16478796]
[50]
Klein, S.; Wadden, T.; Sugerman, H.J. AGA technical review on obesity. Gastroenterology, 2002, 123(3), 882-932.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.35514] [PMID: 12198715]
[51]
Willett, W.C.; Dietz, W.H.; Colditz, G.A. Guidelines for healthy weight. N. Engl. J. Med., 1999, 341(6), 427-434.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199908053410607] [PMID: 10432328]
[52]
The epidemiology of gallstone disease in Rome, Italy. Part I. Prevalence data in men. Hepatology, 1988, 8(4), 904-906.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.1840080433] [PMID: 3391519]
[53]
Scragg, R.K.; McMichael, A.J.; Baghurst, P.A. Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.), 1984, 288(6424), 1113-1119.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.288.6424.1113] [PMID: 6424754]
[54]
Jørgensen, T. Prevalence of gallstones in a Danish population. Am. J. Epidemiol., 1987, 126(5), 912-921.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114728] [PMID: 3310613]
[55]
Stampfer, M.J.; Maclure, K.M.; Colditz, G.A.; Manson, J.E.; Willett, W.C. Risk of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1992, 55(3), 652-658.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/55.3.652] [PMID: 1550039]
[56]
Cuevas, A.; Miquel, J.F.; Reyes, M.S.; Zanlungo, S.; Nervi, F. Diet as a risk factor for cholesterol gallstone disease. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2004, 23(3), 187-196.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2004.10719360] [PMID: 15190042]
[57]
Hofmann, A.F. Primary and secondary prevention of gallstone disease: implications for patient management and research priorities. Am. J. Surg., 1993, 165(4), 541-548.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9610(05)80958-4] [PMID: 8386910]
[58]
Tsunoda, K.; Shirai, Y.; Hatakeyama, K. Prevalence of cholesterol gallstones positively correlates with per capita daily calorie intake. Hepatogastroenterology, 2004, 51(59), 1271-1274.
[PMID: 15362730]
[59]
Compagnucci, A.B.; Perroud, H.A.; Batallés, S.M.; Villavicencio, R.; Brasca, A.; Berli, D.; Pezzotto, S.M. A nested case-control study on dietary fat consumption and the risk for gallstone disease. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet., 2016, 29(3), 338-344.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12332] [PMID: 26249795]
[60]
Caroli-Bosc, F.X.; Deveau, C.; Peten, E.P.; Delabre, B.; Zanaldi, H.; Hebuterne, X.; Hastier, P.; Viudes, F.; Belanger, F.; Caroli-Bosc, C.; Harris, A.; Hardion, M.; Rampal, P.; Delmont, J.P. Cholelithiasis and dietary risk factors: an epidemiologic investigation in Vidauban, Southeast France. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1998, 43(9), 2131-2137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018879819301] [PMID: 9753282]
[61]
Ortega, R.M.; Fernández-Azuela, M.; Encinas-Sotillos, A.; Andrés, P.; López-Sobaler, A.M. Differences in diet and food habits between patients with gallstones and controls. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 1997, 16(1), 88-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1997.10718655] [PMID: 9013440]
[62]
Stender, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A. Elevated body mass index as a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease: a Mendelian randomization study. Hepatology, 2013, 58(6), 2133-2141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.26563] [PMID: 23775818]
[63]
Jensen, M.D.; Ryan, D.H.; Apovian, C.M.; Ard, J.D.; Comuzzie, A.G.; Donato, K.A.; Hu, F.B.; Hubbard, V.S.; Jakicic, J.M.; Kushner, R.F.; Loria, C.M.; Millen, B.E.; Nonas, C.A.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Stevens, J.; Stevens, V.J.; Wadden, T.A.; Wolfe, B.M.; Yanovski, S.Z.; Jordan, H.S.; Kendall, K.A.; Lux, L.J.; Mentor-Marcel, R.; Morgan, L.C.; Trisolini, M.G.; Wnek, J.; Anderson, J.L.; Halperin, J.L.; Albert, N.M.; Bozkurt, B.; Brindis, R.G.; Curtis, L.H.; DeMets, D.; Hochman, J.S.; Kovacs, R.J.; Ohman, E.M.; Pressler, S.J.; Sellke, F.W.; Shen, W.K.; Smith, S.C., Jr; Tomaselli, G.F. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation, 2014, 129(25)(Suppl. 2), S102-S138.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee] [PMID: 24222017]
[64]
Wang, D.Q.H.; Neuschwander-Tetri, B.A.; Portincasa, P. The Biliary System, Colloquium Series on Integrated Systems Physiology: From Molecule to Function;, Morgan and Claypool Publishers,. 2012, 4, 1-148.
[65]
Ahlberg, J.; Angelin, B.; Einarsson, K.; Hellström, K.; Leijd, B. Biliary lipid composition in normo- and hyperlipoproteinemia. Gastroenterology, 1980, 79(1), 90-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(80)90079-7] [PMID: 7380228]
[66]
Ståhlberg, D.; Rudling, M.; Angelin, B.; Björkhem, I.; Forsell, P.; Nilsell, K.; Einarsson, K. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism in human obesity. Hepatology, 1997, 25(6), 1447-1450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.510250623] [PMID: 9185766]
[67]
Mingrone, G.; Greco, A.V.; Finotti, E.; Passi, S. Free fatty acids: a stimulus for mucin hypersecretion in cholesterol gallstone biles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1988, 958(1), 52-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2760(88)90245-7] [PMID: 3334867]
[68]
Di Ciaula, A.; Wang, D.Q.; Portincasa, P. Gallbladder and gastric motility in obese newborns, pre-adolescents and adults. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2012, 27(8), 1298-1305.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2012.07149.x] [PMID: 22497555]
[69]
Portincasa, P.; Di Ciaula, A.; Palmieri, V.O.; Palasciano, G. Acute and chronic effects of oral cholestyramine on gallbladder and antral motiliy in obese and lean individuals. Gut, 1993, 34(Suppl. 3), S31.
[70]
Vezina, W.C.; Paradis, R.L.; Grace, D.M.; Zimmer, R.A.; Lamont, D.D.; Rycroft, K.M.; King, M.E.; Hutton, L.C.; Chey, W.Y. Increased volume and decreased emptying of the gallbladder in large (morbidly obese, tall normal, and muscular normal) people. Gastroenterology, 1990, 98(4), 1000-1007.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(90)90025-V] [PMID: 2179026]
[71]
Portincasa, P.; Di Ciaula, A.; Wang, H.H.; Palasciano, G.; van Erpecum, K.J.; Moschetta, A.; Wang, D.Q.H. Coordinate regulation of gallbladder motor function in the gut-liver axis. Hepatology, 2008, 47(6), 2112-2126.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22204] [PMID: 18506897]
[72]
Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.; Van Ierland-Van Leeuwen, M.L.; Terpstra, A. Determinants of gallbladder kinetics in obesity. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2004, 49(1), 9-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:DDAS.0000011595.39555.c0] [PMID: 14992428]
[73]
Palasciano, G.; Portincasa, P.; Vinciguerra, V.; Velardi, A.; Tardi, S.; Baldassarre, G.; Albano, O. Gallstone prevalence and gallbladder volume in children and adolescents: an epidemiological ultrasonographic survey and relationship to body mass index. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1989, 84(11), 1378-1382.
[PMID: 2683739]
[74]
Faienza, M.F.; Wang, D.Q.; Frühbeck, G.; Garruti, G.; Portincasa, P. The dangerous link between childhood and adulthood predictors of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Intern. Emerg. Med., 2016, 11(2), 175-182.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-015-1382-6] [PMID: 26758061]
[75]
Tsai, A.G.; Wadden, T.A. Systematic review: an evaluation of major commercial weight loss programs in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med., 2005, 142(1), 56-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-142-1-200501040-00012] [PMID: 15630109]
[76]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Tsai, C.J.; Stampfer, M.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Colditz, G.A.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Alcohol consumption in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, 78(2), 339-347.
[http://dx.doi.org/dxDOI: 10.1093/ajcn/78.2.339 ] [PMID: 12885719]
[77]
La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D’Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.; Boyle, P. Risk factors for gallstone disease requiring surgery. Int. J. Epidemiol., 1991, 20(1), 209-215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/20.1.209] [PMID: 2066222]
[78]
Williams, C.; Gowan, R.; Perey, B.J. A Double-Blind Placebo-controlled Trial of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in the Prevention of Gallstones during Weight Loss after Vertical Banded Gastroplasty. Obes. Surg., 1993, 3(3), 257-259.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/096089293765559278] [PMID: 10757929]
[79]
Worobetz, L.J.; Inglis, F.G.; Shaffer, E.A. The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy on gallstone formation in the morbidly obese during rapid weight loss. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1993, 88(10), 1705-1710.
[PMID: 8213711]
[80]
Sugerman, H.J.; Brewer, W.H.; Shiffman, M.L.; Brolin, R.E.; Fobi, M.A.; Linner, J.H.; MacDonald, K.G.; MacGregor, A.M.; Martin, L.F.; Oram-Smith, J.C. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial of prophylactic ursodiol for the prevention of gallstone formation following gastric-bypass-induced rapid weight loss. Am. J. Surg., 1995, 169(1), 91-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9610(99)80115-9] [PMID: 7818005]
[81]
Wudel, L.J., Jr; Wright, J.K.; Debelak, J.P.; Allos, T.M.; Shyr, Y.; Chapman, W.C. Prevention of gallstone formation in morbidly obese patients undergoing rapid weight loss: results of a randomized controlled pilot study. J. Surg. Res., 2002, 102(1), 50-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jsre.2001.6322] [PMID: 11792152]
[82]
Miller, K.; Hell, E.; Lang, B.; Lengauer, E. Gallstone formation prophylaxis after gastric restrictive procedures for weight loss: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Ann. Surg., 2003, 238(5), 697-702.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000094305.77843.cf] [PMID: 14578732]
[83]
Schauer, P.R.; Burguera, B.; Ikramuddin, S.; Cottam, D.; Gourash, W.; Hamad, G.; Eid, G.M.; Mattar, S.; Ramanathan, R.; Barinas-Mitchel, E.; Rao, R.H.; Kuller, L.; Kelley, D. Effect of laparoscopic Roux-en Y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann. Surg., 2003, 238(4), 467-484.
[PMID: 14530719]
[84]
Weinsier, R.L.; Wilson, L.J.; Lee, J. Medically safe rate of weight loss for the treatment of obesity: a guideline based on risk of gallstone formation. Am. J. Med., 1995, 98(2), 115-117.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(99)80394-5] [PMID: 7847427]
[85]
Heshka, S.; Spitz, A.; Nuñez, C.; Fittante, A.M.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X. Obesity and risk of gallstone development on a 1200 kcal/d (5025 Kj/d) regular food diet. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 1996, 20(5), 450-454.
[PMID: 8696424]
[86]
Al-Jiffry, B.O.; Shaffer, E.A.; Saccone, G.T.; Downey, P.; Kow, L.; Toouli, J. Changes in gallbladder motility and gallstone formation following laparoscopic gastric banding for morbid obestity. Can. J. Gastroenterol., 2003, 17(3), 169-174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2003/392719] [PMID: 12677265]
[87]
Mathur, A.; Megan, M.; Al-Azzawi, H.H.; Lu, D.; Swartz-Basile, D.A.; Nakeeb, A.; Pitt, H.A. High dietary carbohydrates decrease gallbladder volume and enhance cholesterol crystal formation. Surgery, 2007, 141(5), 654-659.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2006.11.008] [PMID: 17462466]
[88]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. Gut, 2005, 54(6), 823-828.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2003.031435] [PMID: 15888792]
[89]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gastroenterology, 2005, 129(1), 105-112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.05.016] [PMID: 16012940]
[90]
Attili, A.F.; Scafato, E.; Marchioli, R.; Marfisi, R.M.; Festi, D. Diet and gallstones in Italy: the cross-sectional MICOL results. Hepatology, 1998, 27(6), 1492-1498.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.510270605] [PMID: 9620318]
[91]
Misciagna, G.; Centonze, S.; Leoci, C.; Guerra, V.; Cisternino, A.M.; Ceo, R.; Trevisan, M. Diet, physical activity, and gallstones--a population-based, case-control study in southern Italy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999, 69(1), 120-126.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/69.1.120] [PMID: 9925133]
[92]
Tandon, R.K.; Saraya, A.; Paul, S.; Kapur, B.M. Dietary habits of gallstone patients in Northern India. J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 1996, 22(1), 23-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004836-199601000-00007] [PMID: 8776090]
[93]
Diehl, A.K.; Haffner, S.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Hazuda, H.P.; Stern, M.P. Dietary intake and the prevalence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans. Gastroenterology, 1989, 97(6), 1527-1533.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(89)90399-5] [PMID: 2583417]
[94]
Jørgensen, T.; Jørgensen, L.M. Gallstones and diet in a Danish population. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 1989, 24(7), 821-826.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365528909089221] [PMID: 2678425]
[95]
Moerman, C.J.; Smeets, F.W.M.; Kromhout, D. Dietary risk factors for clinically diagnosed gallstones in middle-aged men. A 25-year follow-up study (the Zutphen Study). Ann. Epidemiol., 1994, 4(3), 248-254.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1047-2797(94)90104-X] [PMID: 8055126]
[96]
Bennion, L.J.; Grundy, S.M. Risk factors for the development of cholelithiasis in man (second of two parts). N. Engl. J. Med., 1978, 299(22), 1221-1227.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197811302992205] [PMID: 362198]
[97]
Scragg, R.K.; Calvert, G.D.; Oliver, J.R. Plasma lipids and insulin in gall stone disease: a case-control study. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.), 1984, 289(6444), 521-525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.289.6444.521] [PMID: 6432171]
[98]
Thornton, J.R.; Emmett, P.M.; Heaton, K.W. Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism. Gut, 1983, 24(1), 2-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.24.1.2] [PMID: 6293939]
[99]
Misciagna, G.; Guerra, V.; Di Leo, A.; Correale, M.; Trevisan, M. Insulin and gall stones: a population case control study in southern Italy. Gut, 2000, 47(1), 144-147.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.47.1.144] [PMID: 10861277]
[100]
Chang, Y.; Sung, E.; Ryu, S.; Park, Y.W.; Jang, Y.M.; Park, M. Insulin resistance is associated with gallstones even in non-obese, non-diabetic Korean men. J. Korean Med. Sci., 2008, 23(4), 644-650.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2008.23.4.644] [PMID: 18756051]
[101]
Wong, A.C.; Ko, C.W. Carbohydrate intake as a risk factor for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 2013, 47(8), 700-705.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0b013e318286fdb0] [PMID: 23442841]
[102]
Faeh, D.; Minehira, K.; Schwarz, J.M.; Periasamy, R.; Park, S.; Tappy, L. Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes, 2005, 54(7), 1907-1913.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.7.1907] [PMID: 15983189]
[103]
Dirlewanger, M.; Schneiter, P.; Jéquier, E.; Tappy, L. Effects of fructose on hepatic glucose metabolism in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 2000, 279(4), E907-E911.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.2000.279.4.E907] [PMID: 11001775]
[104]
Biddinger, S.B.; Haas, J.T.; Yu, B.B.; Bezy, O.; Jing, E.; Zhang, W.; Unterman, T.G.; Carey, M.C.; Kahn, C.R. Hepatic insulin resistance directly promotes formation of cholesterol gallstones. Nat. Med., 2008, 14(7), 778-782.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1785] [PMID: 18587407]
[105]
Tappy, L.; Lê, K.A.; Tran, C.; Paquot, N. Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions. Nutrition, 2010, 26(11-12), 1044-1049.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.02.014] [PMID: 20471804]
[106]
Tetri, L.H.; Basaranoglu, M.; Brunt, E.M.; Yerian, L.M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, B.A. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 2008, 295(5), G987-G995.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.90272.2008] [PMID: 18772365]
[107]
Havel, P.J. Dietary fructose: implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutr. Rev., 2005, 63(5), 133-157.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00132.x] [PMID: 15971409]
[108]
Stanhope, K.L.; Bremer, A.A.; Medici, V.; Nakajima, K.; Ito, Y.; Nakano, T.; Chen, G.; Fong, T.H.; Lee, V.; Menorca, R.I.; Keim, N.L.; Havel, P.J. Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2011, 96(10), E1596-E1605.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-1251] [PMID: 21849529]
[109]
Stanhope, K.L.; Schwarz, J.M.; Keim, N.L.; Griffen, S.C.; Bremer, A.A.; Graham, J.L.; Hatcher, B.; Cox, C.L.; Dyachenko, A.; Zhang, W.; McGahan, J.P.; Seibert, A.; Krauss, R.M.; Chiu, S.; Schaefer, E.J.; Ai, M.; Otokozawa, S.; Nakajima, K.; Nakano, T.; Beysen, C.; Hellerstein, M.K.; Berglund, L.; Havel, P.J. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J. Clin. Invest., 2009, 119(5), 1322-1334.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI37385] [PMID: 19381015]
[110]
Vilà, L.; Roglans, N.; Alegret, M.; Sánchez, R.M.; Vázquez-Carrera, M.; Laguna, J.C. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) and a deficit of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphoproteins involved in leptin transduction mediate the effect of fructose on rat liver lipid metabolism. Hepatology, 2008, 48(5), 1506-1516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22523] [PMID: 18924245]
[111]
Ko, C.W.; Beresford, S.A.; Schulte, S.J.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Lee, S.P. Incidence, natural history, and risk factors for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. Hepatology, 2005, 41(2), 359-365.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.20534] [PMID: 15660385]
[112]
Lim, J.S.; Mietus-Snyder, M.; Valente, A.; Schwarz, J.M.; Lustig, R.H. The role of fructose in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2010, 7(5), 251-264.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2010.41] [PMID: 20368739]
[113]
Bonfrate, L.; Krawczyk, M.; Lembo, A.; Grattagliano, I.; Lammert, F.; Portincasa, P. Effects of dietary education, followed by a tailored fructose-restricted diet in adults with fructose malabsorption. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2015, 27(7), 785-796.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000000374] [PMID: 25919770]
[114]
Heaton, K.W.; Emmett, P.M.; Symes, C.L.; Braddon, F.E.M. An explanation for gallstones in normal-weight women: slow intestinal transit. Lancet, 1993, 341(8836), 8-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)92479-D] [PMID: 8093323]
[115]
Marcus, S.N.; Heaton, K.W. Intestinal transit, deoxycholic acid and the cholesterol saturation of bile--three inter-related factors. Gut, 1986, 27(5), 550-558.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.27.5.550] [PMID: 3699564]
[116]
Linos, A.D.; Daras, V.; Linos, D.A.; Kekis, V.; Tsoukas, M.M.; Golematis, V. Dietary and other risk factors in the aetiology of cholelithiasis: a case control study. HPB Surg., 1989, 1(3), 221-227.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1989/56539] [PMID: 2487388]
[117]
Kummerow, F.A. Dietary effects of trans fatty acids. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 1986, 6(3-4), 123-149.
[PMID: 3519929]
[118]
Oomen, C.M.; Ocké, M.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; van Erp-Baart, M.A.J.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D. Association between trans fatty acid intake and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study: a prospective population-based study. Lancet, 2001, 357(9258), 746-751.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04166-0] [PMID: 11253967]
[119]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Long-term intake of trans-fatty acids and risk of gallstone disease in men. Arch. Intern. Med., 2005, 165(9), 1011-1015.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.165.9.1011] [PMID: 15883239]
[120]
Ginter, E. Cholesterol: vitamin C controls its transformation to bile acids. Science, 1973, 179(4074), 702-704.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4074.702] [PMID: 4685043]
[121]
Ginter, E. Chenodeoxycholic acid, gallstones and vitamin C. N. Engl. J. Med., 1976, 295(22), 1260-1261.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197611252952218] [PMID: 980043]
[122]
Simon, J.A.; Hudes, E.S. Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Arch. Intern. Med., 2000, 160(7), 931-936.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.7.931] [PMID: 10761957]
[123]
Björkhem, I.; Kallner, A. Hepatic 7alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterol in ascorbate-deficient and ascorbate-supplemented guinea pigs. J. Lipid Res., 1976, 17(4), 360-365.
[PMID: 950498]
[124]
Bergman, F.; Curstedt, T.; Eriksson, H.; van der Linden, W.; Sjövall, J. Gallstone formation in guinea pigs under different dietary conditions. Effect of vitamin C on bile acid pattern. Med. Biol., 1981, 59(2), 92-98.
[PMID: 7311630]
[125]
Jenkins, S.A. Biliary lipids, bile acids and gallstone formation in hypovitaminotic C guinea-pigs. Br. J. Nutr., 1978, 40(2), 317-322.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19780128] [PMID: 698170]
[126]
Jenkins, S.A. Hypovitaminosis C and cholelithiasis in guinea pigs. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1977, 77(3), 1030-1035.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(77)80081-8] [PMID: 901508]
[127]
Ortega, R.M.; Fernández-Azuela, M.; Encinas-Sotillos, A.; Andrés, P.; López-Sobaler, A.M. Differences in diet and food habits between patients with gallstones and controls. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 1997, 16(1), 88-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1997.10718655] [PMID: 9013440]
[128]
Simon, J.A.; Hudes, E.S. Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of gallbladder disease among US adults. Am. J. Public Health, 1998, 88(8), 1208-1212.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.8.1208] [PMID: 9702150]
[129]
Simon, J.A.; Grady, D.; Snabes, M.C.; Fong, J.; Hunninghake, D.B. Ascorbic acid supplement use and the prevalence of gallbladder disease. Heart & Estrogen-Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 1998, 51(3), 257-265.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(97)80280-6] [PMID: 9495691]
[130]
Gustafsson, U.; Wang, F.H.; Axelson, M.; Kallner, A.; Sahlin, S.; Einarsson, K. The effect of vitamin C in high doses on plasma and biliary lipid composition in patients with cholesterol gallstones: prolongation of the nucleation time. Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 1997, 27(5), 387-391.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2362.1997.1240670.x] [PMID: 9179545]
[131]
Walcher, T.; Haenle, M.M.; Kron, M.; Hay, B.; Mason, R.A.; Walcher, D.; Steinbach, G.; Kern, P.; Piechotowski, I.; Adler, G.; Boehm, B.O.; Koenig, W.; Kratzer, W. Vitamin C supplement use may protect against gallstones: an observational study on a randomly selected population. BMC Gastroenterol., 2009, 9, 74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-9-74] [PMID: 19814821]
[132]
Rigotti, A.; Marzolo, M.P.; Ulloa, N.; González, O.; Nervi, F. Effect of bean intake on biliary lipid secretion and on hepatic cholesterol metabolism in the rat. J. Lipid Res., 1989, 30(7), 1041-1048.
[PMID: 2794787]
[133]
Nervi, F.; Covarrubias, C.; Bravo, P.; Velasco, N.; Ulloa, N.; Cruz, F.; Fava, M.; Severín, C.; Del Pozo, R.; Antezana, C. Influence of legume intake on biliary lipids and cholesterol saturation in young Chilean men. Identification of a dietary risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation in a highly prevalent area. Gastroenterology, 1989, 96(3), 825-830.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(89)90908-6] [PMID: 2783676]
[134]
Duane, W.C. Effects of legume consumption on serum cholesterol, biliary lipids, and sterol metabolism in humans. J. Lipid Res., 1997, 38(6), 1120-1128.
[PMID: 9215540]
[135]
Méndez-Sánchez, N.; Zamora-Valdés, D.; Chávez-Tapia, N.C.; Uribe, M. Role of diet in cholesterol gallstone formation. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2007, 376(1-2), 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2006.08.036] [PMID: 17055469]
[136]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Rimm, E.B.; Stampfer, M.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Wing, A.L.; Willett, W.C. The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Ann. Intern. Med., 1998, 128(6), 417-425.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-128-6-199803150-00001] [PMID: 9499324]
[137]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. The effect of long-term intake of cis unsaturated fats on the risk for gallstone disease in men: a prospective cohort study. Ann. Intern. Med., 2004, 141(7), 514-522.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-141-7-200410050-00007] [PMID: 15466768]
[138]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Hu, F.B.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Frequent nut consumption and decreased risk of cholecystectomy in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 80(1), 76-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.1.76] [PMID: 15213031]
[139]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Tsai, C.J.; Stampfer, M.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Colditz, G.A.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Alcohol consumption in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, 78(2), 339-347.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.2.339] [PMID: 12885719]
[140]
Froehlich, F.; Gonvers, J.J.; Fried, M. Role of nutrient fat and cholecystokinin in regulation of gallbladder emptying in man. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1995, 40(3), 529-533.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02064362] [PMID: 7895538]
[141]
Festi, D.; Colecchia, A.; Orsini, M.; Sangermano, A.; Sottili, S.; Simoni, P.; Mazzella, G.; Villanova, N.; Bazzoli, F.; Lapenna, D.; Petroni, M.L.; Pavesi, S.; Neri, M.; Roda, E. Gallbladder motility and gallstone formation in obese patients following very low calorie diets. Use it (fat) to lose it (well). Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 1998, 22(6), 592-600.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0800634] [PMID: 9665682]
[142]
Gebhard, R.L.; Prigge, W.F.; Ansel, H.J.; Schlasner, L.; Ketover, S.R.; Sande, D.; Holtmeier, K.; Peterson, F.J. The role of gallbladder emptying in gallstone formation during diet-induced rapid weight loss. Hepatology, 1996, 24(3), 544-548.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.510240313] [PMID: 8781321]
[143]
Marks, J.W.; Bonorris, G.G.; Schoenfield, L.J. Effects of ursodiol or ibuprofen on contraction of gallbladder and bile among obese patients during weight loss. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1996, 41(2), 242-249.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02093811] [PMID: 8601365]
[144]
Yago, M.D.; González, V.; Serrano, P.; Calpena, R.; Martínez, M.A.; Martínez-Victoria, E.; Mañas, M. Effect of the type of dietary fat on biliary lipid composition and bile lithogenicity in humans with cholesterol gallstone disease. Nutrition, 2005, 21(3), 339-347.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.06.028] [PMID: 15797676]
[145]
Boland, L.L.; Folsom, A.R.; Rosamond, W.D. Hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and obesity as risk factors for hospitalized gallbladder disease. A prospective study. Ann. Epidemiol., 2002, 12(2), 131-140.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(01)00260-5] [PMID: 11880221]
[146]
Festi, D.; Dormi, A.; Capodicasa, S.; Staniscia, T.; Attili, A.F.; Loria, P.; Pazzi, P.; Mazzella, G.; Sama, C.; Roda, E.; Colecchia, A. Incidence of gallstone disease in Italy: results from a multicenter, population-based Italian study (the MICOL project). World J. Gastroenterol., 2008, 14(34), 5282-5289.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.5282] [PMID: 18785280]
[147]
Thornton, J.; Symes, C.; Heaton, K. Moderate alcohol intake reduces bile cholesterol saturation and raises HDL cholesterol. Lancet, 1983, 2(8354), 819-822.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(83)90738-9] [PMID: 6137650]
[148]
Thornton, J.R.; Heaton, K.W.; Macfarlane, D.G. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.), 1981, 283(6303), 1352-1354.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.283.6303.1352] [PMID: 6797538]
[149]
Jonkers, I.J.; Smelt, A.H.; Ledeboer, M.; Hollum, M.E.; Biemond, I.; Kuipers, F.; Stellaard, F.; Boverhof, R.; Meinders, A.E.; Lamers, C.H.; Masclee, A.A. Gall bladder dysmotility: a risk factor for gall stone formation in hypertriglyceridaemia and reversal on triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil. Gut, 2003, 52(1), 109-115.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.52.1.109] [PMID: 12477770]
[150]
Pastides, H.; Tzonou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kefalogiannis, N.; Manousos, O. A case-control study of the relationship between smoking, diet, and gallbladder disease. Arch. Intern. Med., 1990, 150(7), 1409-1412.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1990.00390190073010] [PMID: 2369240]
[151]
Misciagna, G.; Leoci, C.; Guerra, V.; Chiloiro, M.; Elba, S.; Petruzzi, J.; Mossa, A.; Noviello, M.R.; Coviello, A.; Minutolo, M.C.; Mangini, V.; Messa, C.; Cavallini, A.; De Michele, G.; Giorgio, I. Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in southern Italy. Part II: Risk factors. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 1996, 8(6), 585-593.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00042737-199606000-00017] [PMID: 8823575]
[152]
Tseng, M.; DeVellis, R.F.; Maurer, K.R.; Khare, M.; Kohlmeier, L.; Everhart, J.E.; Sandler, R.S. Food intake patterns and gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans. Public Health Nutr., 2000, 3(2), 233-243.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980000000276] [PMID: 10948391]
[153]
Scobey, M.W.; Johnson, F.L.; Parks, J.S.; Rudel, L.L. Dietary fish oil effects on biliary lipid secretion and cholesterol gallstone formation in the African green monkey. Hepatology, 1991, 14(4 Pt 1), 679-684.
[PMID: 1916670]
[154]
Berr, F.; Holl, J.; Jüngst, D.; Fischer, S.; Richter, W.O.; Seifferth, B.; Paumgartner, G. Dietary N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease biliary cholesterol saturation in gallstone disease. Hepatology, 1992, 16(4), 960-967.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.1840160418] [PMID: 1398503]
[155]
Méndez-Sánchez, N.; González, V.; Aguayo, P.; Sánchez, J.M.; Tanimoto, M.A.; Elizondo, J.; Uribe, M. Fish oil (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids beneficially affect biliary cholesterol nucleation time in obese women losing weight. J. Nutr., 2001, 131(9), 2300-2303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.9.2300] [PMID: 11533270]
[156]
Lander, E.M.; Wertheim, B.C.; Koch, S.M.; Chen, Z.; Hsu, C.H.; Thomson, C.A. Vegetable protein intake is associated with lower gallbladder disease risk: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort. Prev. Med., 2016, 88, 20-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.03.016] [PMID: 27009631]
[157]
Tsai, C.J.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E.L. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women. Am. J. Med., 2006, 119(9), 760-767.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.040] [PMID: 16945611]
[158]
Key, T.J.; Davey, G.K.; Appleby, P.N. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 1999, 58(2), 271-275.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665199000373] [PMID: 10466166]
[159]
Biss, K.; Ho, K.J.; Mikkelson, B.; Lewis, L.; Taylor, C.B. Some unique biologic characteristics of the Masai of East Africa. N. Engl. J. Med., 1971, 284(13), 694-699.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197104012841304] [PMID: 5107799]
[160]
Kratzer, W.; Kron, M.; Hay, B.; Pfeiffer, M.M.; Kächele, V. [Prevalence of cholecystolithiasis in South Germany--an ultrasound study of 2,498 persons of a rural population] Z. Gastroenterol., 1999, 37(12), 1157-1162. [Prevalence of cholecystolithiasis in South Germany-an ultrasound study of 2,498 persons of a rural population]
[PMID: 10666839]
[161]
Kratzer, W.; Kächele, V.; Mason, R.A.; Hill, V.; Hay, B.; Haug, C.; Adler, G.; Beckh, K.; Muche, R. Gallstone prevalence in Germany: the Ulm Gallbladder Stone Study. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1998, 43(6), 1285-1291.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018816109905] [PMID: 9635619]
[162]
Pixley, F.; Mann, J. Dietary factors in the aetiology of gall stones: a case control study. Gut, 1988, 29(11), 1511-1515.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.29.11.1511] [PMID: 3209107]
[163]
Pixley, F.; Wilson, D.; McPherson, K.; Mann, J. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.), 1985, 291(6487), 11-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.291.6487.11] [PMID: 3926039]
[164]
Walcher, T.; Haenle, M.M.; Mason, R.A.; Koenig, W.; Imhof, A.; Kratzer, W.; Group, E.S. The effect of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2010, 22(11), 1345-1351.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e32833efdb2] [PMID: 20802339]
[165]
Chen, Y.C.; Chiou, C.; Lin, M.N.; Lin, C.L. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians. PLoS One, 2014, 9(12)e115145
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115145] [PMID: 25521621]
[166]
Morán, S.; Uribe, M.; Prado, M.E.; de la Mora, G.; Muñoz, R.M.; Pérez, M.F.; Milke, P.; Blancas, J.M.; Dehesa, M. [Effects of fiber administration in the prevention of gallstones in obese patients on a reducing diet. A clinical trial] Rev. Gastroenterol. Mex., 1997, 62(4), 266-272.[Effects of fiber administration in the prevention of gallstones in obese patients on a reducing diet. A clinical trial].
[PMID: 9580234]
[167]
Festi, D.; Villanova, N.; Colecchia, A. Risk factors for gallstone formation during weight loss. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2015, 13(3), 613.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2014.08.010] [PMID: 25148763]
[168]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Willett, W.C.; Rimm, E.B.; Stampfer, M.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Colditz, G.A.; Giovannucci, E. A prospective study of coffee consumption and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men. JAMA, 1999, 281(22), 2106-2112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.22.2106] [PMID: 10367821]
[169]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.; Spiegelman, D.; Colditz, G.A.; Giovannucci, E.L. Coffee intake is associated with lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in women. Gastroenterology, 2002, 123(6), 1823-1830.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.37054] [PMID: 12454839]
[170]
Jørgensen, T. Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus. Gut, 1989, 30(4), 528-534.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.30.4.528] [PMID: 2785475]
[171]
Ruhl, C.E.; Everhart, J.E. Association of coffee consumption with gallbladder disease. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2000, 152(11), 1034-1038.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/152.11.1034] [PMID: 11117612]
[172]
Kratzer, W.; Kächele, V.; Mason, R.A.; Muche, R.; Hay, B.; Wiesneth, M.; Hill, V.; Beckh, K.; Adler, G. Gallstone prevalence in relation to smoking, alcohol, coffee consumption, and nutrition. The Ulm Gallstone Study. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 1997, 32(9), 953-958.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365529709011208] [PMID: 9299677]
[173]
Halvorsen, B.; Ranheim, T.; Nenseter, M.S.; Huggett, A.C.; Drevon, C.A. Effect of a coffee lipid (cafestol) on cholesterol metabolism in human skin fibroblasts. J. Lipid Res., 1998, 39(4), 901-912.
[PMID: 9555953]
[174]
Lillemoe, K.D.; Magnuson, T.H.; High, R.C.; Peoples, G.E.; Pitt, H.A. Caffeine prevents cholesterol gallstone formation. Surgery, 1989, 106(2), 400-406.
[PMID: 2763038]
[175]
Douglas, B.R.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Tham, R.T.O.; Lamers, C.B.H.W. Coffee stimulation of cholecystokinin release and gallbladder contraction in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1990, 52(3), 553-556.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/52.3.553] [PMID: 2393014]
[176]
Magnuson, T.H.; Zarkin, B.A.; Lillemoe, K.D.; May, C.A.; Bastidas, J.A.; Pitt, H.A. Caffeine inhibits gallbladder absorption. Curr. Surg., 1989, 46(6), 477-479.
[PMID: 2620540]
[177]
Brown, S.R.; Cann, P.A.; Read, N.W. Effect of coffee on distal colon function. Gut, 1990, 31(4), 450-453.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.31.4.450] [PMID: 2338272]
[178]
Nordenvall, C.; Oskarsson, V.; Wolk, A. Inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women but not in men. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 13, 1096-1102.2015.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2014.09.029]
[179]
Hannuksela, M.L.; Rantala, M.; Kesäniemi, Y.A.; Savolainen, M.J. Ethanol-induced redistribution of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) between lipoproteins. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 1996, 16(2), 213-221.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.16.2.213] [PMID: 8620335]
[180]
Gaziano, J.M.; Buring, J.E.; Breslow, J.L.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Rosner, B.; VanDenburgh, M.; Willett, W.; Hennekens, C.H. Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein and its subfractions, and decreased risk of myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med., 1993, 329(25), 1829-1834.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312163292501] [PMID: 8247033]
[181]
Haskell, W.L.; Camargo, C., Jr; Williams, P.T.; Vranizan, K.M.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; Wood, P.D. The effect of cessation and resumption of moderate alcohol intake on serum high-density-lipoprotein subfractions. A controlled study. N. Engl. J. Med., 1984, 310(13), 805-810.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198403293101301] [PMID: 6366553]
[182]
Saluja, A.K.; Bhagat, L. Pathophysiology of alcohol-induced pancreatic injury. Pancreas, 2003, 27(4), 327-331.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006676-200311000-00010] [PMID: 14576496]
[183]
Probert, C.S.; Emmett, P.M.; Heaton, K.W. Some determinants of whole-gut transit time: a population-based study. QJM, 1995, 88(5), 311-315.
[PMID: 7796084]
[184]
Basso, L.; McCollum, P.T.; Darling, M.R.; Tocchi, A.; Tanner, W.A. A descriptive study of pregnant women with gallstones. Relation to dietary and social habits, education, physical activity, height, and weight. Eur. J. Epidemiol., 1992, 8(5), 629-633.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00145375] [PMID: 1426161]
[185]
La Vecchia, C.; Decarli, A.; Ferraroni, M.; Negri, E. Alcohol drinking and prevalence of self-reported gallstone disease in the 1983 Italian National Health Survey. Epidemiology, 1994, 5(5), 533-536.
[PMID: 7986868]
[186]
Fornari, F.; Imberti, D.; Squillante, M.M.; Squassante, L.; Civardi, G.; Buscarini, E.; Cavanna, L.; Caturelli, E.; Buscarini, L. Incidence of gallstones in a population of patients with cirrhosis. J. Hepatol., 1994, 20(6), 797-801.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(05)80152-7] [PMID: 7930481]
[187]
Conte, D.; Fraquelli, M.; Fornari, F.; Lodi, L.; Bodini, P.; Buscarini, L. Close relation between cirrhosis and gallstones: cross-sectional and longitudinal survey. Arch. Intern. Med., 1999, 159(1), 49-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.159.1.49] [PMID: 9892330]
[188]
Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler. Thromb., 1992, 12(8), 911-919.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.12.8.911] [PMID: 1386252]
[189]
Maclure, K.M.; Hayes, K.C.; Colditz, G.A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C. Dietary predictors of symptom-associated gallstones in middle-aged women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1990, 52(5), 916-922.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/52.5.916] [PMID: 2239768]
[190]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Stampfer, M.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Colditz, G.A.; Willett, W.C.; Rimm, E.B. Prospective study of alcohol consumption patterns in relation to symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., 1999, 23(5), 835-841.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1999.tb04191.x] [PMID: 10371403]
[191]
Alberti, K.G.; Zimmet, P.; Shaw, J. The metabolic syndrome--a new worldwide definition. Lancet, 2005, 366(9491), 1059-1062.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67402-8] [PMID: 16182882]
[192]
Portincasa, P.; Di Ciaula, A.; Wang, H.H.; Moschetta, A.; Wang, D.Q. Medicinal treatments of cholesterol gallstones: old, current and new perspectives. Curr. Med. Chem., 2009, 16(12), 1531-1542.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986709787909631] [PMID: 19355905]
[193]
Portincasa, P.; Di Ciaula, A.; Wang, H.H.; Palasciano, G.; van Erpecum, K.J.; Moschetta, A.; Wang, D.Q. Coordinate regulation of gallbladder motor function in the gut-liver axis. Hepatology, 2008, 47(6), 2112-2126.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22204] [PMID: 18506897]
[194]
Leitzmann, M.F.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Stampfer, M.J.; Spiegeln, D.; Colditz, G.A.; Willst, W.C.; Rimm, E.B. Prospective study of alcohol consumption patterns in relation to symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., 1999, 23(5), 835-841.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1999.tb04191.x] [PMID: 10371403]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 19
Year: 2019
Published on: 29 May, 2017
Page: [3620 - 3638]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170530080636
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 106
HTML: 18
PRC: 2