Background: HMGB1 is a marker of inflammation that belongs to the alarmins family
promoting an immediate activation of the innate immune response, such as chemotaxis and proinflammatory
cytokine release, in response to tissue damage. The aim of this mini review is
summarized what is known about the role of HMGB1 in onset and development of allergic and not
allergic respiratory disorders.
Methods: A literature search of electronic database was udertaken for the major studies published
from 2012 to date. The databases searched were: PubMed and Science Direct. We used the keywords:
"HMGB1, respiratory diseases, airway diseases, allergic respiratory diseases, rhinitis, nasal polyposis,
asthma, infectious diseases, COPD, cystic fibrosis "
Results: Of 207 reviewed reports, 43 were included in this systematic review. Studies look at
HMGB1 as a new molecule orchestrating a homeostatic defensive response essential for the
occurrence, progression, and persistence both of allergic and not allergic respiratory diseases. In
particular, HMGB1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology both of allergic rhinitis and asthma as
well as in chronic rhinitis, nasal polyposis, infectious diseases and cystic fibrosis.
Conclusion: HMGB1, as causal molecule for several diseases, has stimulated an increasing interest in
the field of inflammation research, providing new useful data for understanding disease processes as
well as opening scenarios for new therapeutic strategies.