Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has increased drastically over the past few
decades. This oxidant-antioxidant imbalance resulting in complication of diabetes mellitus includes
macro- and microvascular complications. Resistance to conventional treatment and patient compliance
has paved the way to the usage of effective natural products and supplements. Momordica charantia
(bitter gourd) is widely consumed in many parts of Malaysia as a vegetable. Momordica charantia
(MC) is mainly used in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Objective: The present review discusses the literature concerning the antidiabetic and antioxidant
properties of MC focusing on the complication of diabetes mellitus along with its mode of delivery.
We found that among the whole part of MC, its fruit extract has been widely studied, therapeutically.
The evidence based analysis of the beneficiary effects of MC on the different organs involved in diabetes
complication is also highlighted. This review elucidated an essential understanding of MC based
drug delivery system in both clinical and experimental studies and appraised the great potential of the
protein based MC extract against diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: The review paper is believed to assist the researchers and medical personnel in treating
diabetic associated complications.