Background: To date more than 3000 miRNA sequences have been described in humans and registered
at miRBase since their discovery. However, the functions of only a few of these miRNAs have been experimentally
determined using deep sequencing technology. Aberrant miRNA expression has been associated with differentiation,
invasion and metastasis in several cancers. In this context, recent reports have suggested that miRNAs play important
roles in the regulation of target genes by binding to complementary regions of messenger transcripts to repress
their translation or regulate degradation. In addition, the expression profiles of certain miRNAs can function biologically
as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
Method: In this review, we summarize the relationship between miRNAs expression and Bladder Cancer (BC). A
comprehensive review of the literature has shown a differential expression between malignant and normal tissues,
and that miRNAs could be the driving molecules of the BC progression. Similarly, the expression levels of miRNAs
in urine and blood samples of BC patients have been demonstrated to be different from healthy people, a finding that
might have diagnostic value.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the understanding of miRNAs mechanisms and cell distribution provides new opportunities
for diagnosis, prognostic, disease monitoring and personalized therapy of BC patients.