Effects of Diets on Adipose Tissue

Author(s): Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 19 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems.

Objective: This Review aims to describe the dietary strategies to deal with excess adiposity given the medical, social and economic consequences of obesity.

Methods: One hundred and eighty-five papers were included in the present Review.

Results: Excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity- related comorbidities. The first approach for obesity management and prevention is the implementation of a diet combined with physical activity. The present review summarizes the compelling evidence showing body composition changes, impact on cardiometabolism and potential adverse effects of very-low calorie, low- and high-carbohydrate, high-protein or low-fat diets. The use of macronutrients during the preprandial and postprandial state has been also reviewed to better understand the metabolic changes induced by different dietary interventions.

Conclusion: Dietary changes should be individualised, tailored to food preferences and allow for flexible approaches to reducing calorie intake in order to increase the motivation and compliance of overweight and obese patients.

Keywords: Excess adiposity, very-low calorie diets, high-protein diets, low and high-carbohydrate diets, low fat diets, glucose metabolism.

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