Background: We review research findings and the limitations of recent qualitative and
quantitative studies of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors in military populations in three Caribbean
countries (Dominican Republic, Belize, and Barbados).
Methods: This research shows how mental health issues, disordered substance use, and structuring
aspects of the occupational field produce and reproduce patterns of risk behaviors.
Results: We discuss the use of formative research, the Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention
framework, and the use of implementation science (including research methods that employ alternative
methodological assumptions to better elucidate both cultural nuances and unknown components
of program impact in different military populations) as a means to tailor individual prevention
strategies to military populations.
Conclusion: We conclude that greater adaption and ingenuity in prevention could improve behavioral
prevention of HIV among military personnel in the Caribbean region.