Objective: Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), a unicellular green microalga, has been
widely used as a food supplement and reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. The
current study was designed to assess the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and DNA-damaging effects of C.
vulgaris growth factor (CGF), hot water C. vulgaris extracts, inlung tumor A549 and NCI-H460
Methods: A549 cells, NCI-H460 cells, and normal human fibroblasts were treated with CGF at
various concentrations (0-300 μg/ml) for 24 hr. The comet assay and γH2AX assay showed DNA
damage in A549 and NCI-H460 cells upon CGF exposure. Evaluation of apoptosis by the TUNEL
assay and DNA fragmentation analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that CGF induced
apoptosis in A549 and NCI-H460 cells.
Results: Chlorella vulgaris hot water extract induced apoptosis and DNA damage in human lung
Conclusion: CGF can thus be considered a potential cytotoxic or genotoxic drug for treatment of