Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality and
hospitalizations especially in elderly patients, whose therapeutic management is particularly
challenging due to the lack of specific recommendations, particularly in old patients with
multiple comorbidities and disability. The ageing process is highly heterogeneous with several
possible phenotypes ranging from healthy ageing to frailty. While in healthy old individuals,
cardiovascular diseases can be treated following suggestions derived from international
guidelines, treatment of pre-frail and frail elderly patients is extremely complicated
and very frequently recommended standard treatments in these patients cannot be applied.
Objective: In the present review, we will discuss the management and treatment of cardiovascular
diseases in the elderly.
Methods: This review was based on searches of the PubMed database using the following
terms: “elderly”, “aging”, “frailty”, “heart failure”, “hypertension”, “atrial fibrillation”,
“stroke prevention”, “guidelines”, “therapy”, “management”.
Results: we have summarized the current therapies for elderly patients with cardiovascular
disease, focusing our attention on heart failure, hypertension and atrial fibrillation that
are very common and often coexisting diseases in the elderly.
Conclusion: new studies involving frail elderly patients are needed in order to provide
evidence-based treatment strategies and to allow more personalized medical approaches.