Background: There are now significant evidences that lipid metabolism is affected in numerous
neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. These dysfunctions lead to abnormal
levels of certain lipids in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. It is consequently of interest to establish
lipid profiles in neurodegenerative diseases. This approach, which can contribute to identify lipid
biomarkers of Alzheimers' disease, can also permit to identify new therapeutic targets. It was therefore
of interest to focus on central and peripheral biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
Methods: A review of the literature on 148 papers was conducted. Based on this literature, the involvement
of lipids (cholesterol and oxysterols, fatty acids, phospholipids) in Alzheimer's disease has been
Results: Of the 148 references cited for lipid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease, 65 refer to cholesterol
and oxysterols, 35 to fatty acids and 40 to phospholipids. Among these lipids, some of them such as
24S-hydroxyckolesterol, open up new therapeutic perspectives in gene therapy, in particular. The results
on the very long-chain fatty acids suggest the potential of peroxisomal dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease.
As for the phospholipids, they could constitute interesting biomarkers for detecting the disease at
the prodromal stage.
Conclusion: There are now several lines of evidence that lipids play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis
of AD and that some of them have a prognostic and diagnosis value. This may pave the way for
the identification of new therapeutic targets, new effective drugs and / or new treatments.