Background: Vitamin D deficiency is one determinant of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the course of
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). However, numerous studies support the notion that vitamin D may exert pleiotropic
effects aside of mineral metabolism control. Indeed, vitamin D receptor has been identified in a great variety of
tissues and its activation contributes to the parathyroid, intestine, cardiovascular and immune system regulation.
Conclusion: We herein review vitamin D metabolism and effects with a specific emphasis on the potential impact of
vitamin D receptor modulation aside from parathyroid hormone control.