Background: Ovarian cancer is most lethal among all gynecologic malignancies. Paclitaxel (PTX) is
well used chemotherapeutic regimen for cancer control; however its undesired toxicity has been a matter of
concern for clinicians. Here, we used the graphene oxide coated nanotised apigenin (GO-NA) to enhance the
efficacy of paclitaxel.
Objective: The combined use of paclitaxel (PTX) and nanotised apigenin (NA) may reduce the PTX dose and
increase the efficacy.
Methods: GO and GO-Apigenin was prepared by modified Hummers method and the nanoparticles were
characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. SKOV-3 cells were treated by
DMSO, Group I (Control)-McCoy's 5A Medium, Group II-Paclitaxel (5nM), Group III- Nanotised Apigenin
(GO-NA-10µM), Group IV- Paclitaxel (5nM) + GO-NA (10µM). Cell viability and IC-50 value were determined
by MTT assay, synergism by Compusyn software, ROS by DCFH-DA assay, SOD activity by kit and
MMP were examined by JC-1 and mitotracker/DAPI staining, cell cycle by flow cytometry, mRNA and protein
level by Real Time-PCR and Western blot respectively
Results: Results showed that GO-NA-PTX enhanced the anti-proliferative effect in synergistic manner as
compare to GO-NA and PTX alone. GO-NA-PTX significantly suppressed the SOD activity, promotes the
ROS accumulation, mitochondrial depolarization, DNA integrity and cell cycle arrest collectively accord the
apoptosis. Results of immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot showed up-regulation of caspase-3, Bax,
and down-regulation of Bcl-2.
Conclusion: The combination of PTX with GO-NA produces synergistic effects in SKOV-3 cells via the
modulation of pro and anti-apoptotic gene and may reduce side effects of PTX.