Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by inappropriate hyperglycemia.
It is becoming an epidemic disease in developing countries. Diabetic patients are frequently afflicted with a vascular
dysfunction and wound healing defect. In spite of intense investigations, over the past 2-3 decades, optimal
treatment options and related mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs
considered as regulators of a vast number of biological processes including endothelial cell function controlling
molecular signaling pathways in diabetic pathogenesis. Down regulation of microRNA-126 (miR-126) which
may regulate angiogenesis and vascular integrity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and complications of
DM. This paper discusses the potential application of miR-126 as a novel therapeutic agent capable of reducing
diabetic vascular complications in different types of DM based on the up-to-date reports.
Keywords: Angiogenesis, diabetes mellitus, miR-126, vascular complications, microRNAs, hyperglycemia.
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