Background: Supporting of choline chloride (CC):2urea as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) on
nonomagnetite gives the core-shell of nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea which in DES coating inhibits the agglomeration
of nanoFe3O4 and nanoFe3O4 facilitates reusability of DES. The ratio of nanoFe3O4 to DES
in nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea was determined as 8:1. These synergic effects led to a high catalytic performance
for nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea versus individual nanoFe3O4 or CC:2urea in synthesis of pyrazole derivatives
by various synthetic strategies. Faster reactions with higher yields at room temperature occur
with low loading of this recyclable hybrid catalyst.
Method: NanoFe3O4 and DESs were prepared by co-precipitation of FeCl3.6H2O and FeCl2.4H2O with
NH3 and heating the mixture of CC and hydrogen donors to a homogeneous liquid. Then,
nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea was prepared by sonication of nanoFe3O4 and dissolved CC:2urea in methanol.
After characterization by FT-IR, SEM, TEM, TGA, and VSM, the efficacy of nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea
was examined in one-pot synthesis of pyrazoles and pyranopyrazoles.
Results: NanoFe3O4@CC:2urea is a hybrid organic/inorganic catalyst which in DES coating inhibits the
agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nanoFe3O4 improves the reusability of DES. These synergic
effects deliver a high catalytic performance for nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea in synthesis of pyrazoles and pyranopyrazoles.
Faster reactions with higher yields at room temperature occur with low loading of this
magnetically separable and reusable catalyst.
Conclusion: In summary, synergic effects of CC:2urea and nanomagnetite in nanoFe3O4@CC:2urea
lead to a reusable catalyst with superior catalytic activity in room temperature three- or four- component
synthesis of pyrazoles and pyranopyrazoles. This magnetically separable DES provides higher yields of
products, faster reactions, and milder conditions compared to previous reported methods.