Background: Enzymes are biomolecules functioning as catalysts accelerating the speed of
specific reactions. Increasing global population, lifestyle trends, biofuels and chemical/pharmaceutical
applications have positive impacts on global demand for new industrial enzymes. The global market
of enzymes has been growing, which is estimated in 2015 to be about 3.7 billion USD with a 10%
Objectives: In this review, we discuss the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes with respect
to their sources, applications, and methods for improvement. Prospective enzymes that have potential
industrial applications and industries that need new candidate thermophilic enzymes will also be presented.
Results: Research, reports and online contents related to industrial enzymes are reviewed. Industrial
enzymes have many applications such as detergent, food, animal feed, cosmetics, biofuel, medication,
pharmaceuticals, technical use, and tools for research and development. Commercially available microbial
enzymes are about 200 out of almost 4,000 enzymes known. The recent increase in the global
environmental awareness requires industry with environmentally friendly conditions and as-low-aspossible
energy consumption, which shed light on the benefits of using enzymes. Microorganisms are
major sources for industrial enzymes, especially thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes. Thermostable
enzymes have many desirable characteristics such as thermostability, wide range of pH tolerance
and resistance to organic solvents, which make them superior for industrial applications.
Conclusion: Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes represent a superior source for industrial
applications. More efforts are needed for increasing the implementation of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic
enzymes in industries, and screening for new enzymes from different sources and creating
new methods for harnessing these enzymes for more industrial applications.