Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the vital cause of cancer -related death throughout the world. At
present, the exact mechanism responsible for the formation of HCC and its maintenance remains suspicious.
Hepatocarcinogenesis involves a multistep activity involving several genetic aberrations which result in malignant
transformation of the liver cells. The prevalence and occurrence of this disease are kept on increasing and an
increase in the liver transplantation cases are vital indications for it. In the past decades, significant progress has
been achieved toward the better elucidation of molecular pathways of oncogenic processes. Several, cell signaling
mechanisms involved in tumor pathogenesis have been identified, leading to the production of new tumor markers
and to set targets for therapy, including cytokines, enzymes, proteantigens. However, more tumor markers are
in need for the effective early diagnosis of the disease condition and monitor the treatment efficacy. This review
updates the recent findings in key molecular markers, pathways involved, animal models and treatment strategies
in HCC and the advances obtained from basic research and clinical studies.