Background: The World Health Organization determines cardiovascular diseases as the
most wide-spread diseases in the world. They are the main reason for human death in most countries.
Functional food enriched with essential micronutrients, such as ω-3 fatty acids, are one means of
such diseases' prevention. Micro- and nano-encapsulation of fatty acids contributes to their safety
and prevents changes to the organoleptic properties of the products when introduced in a recipe.
Objective: This paper aims to present a method for enriching bread with ω-3 fatty acids using a
liposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) concentrate obtained from seal fat.
Methods: The authors developed the PUFAs concentrate using the complex formation method
with urea. They introduced a liposomal suspension with the PUFAs concentrate into a bread recipe
by replacing part of the water. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine
the fatty acid composition of the oil in the bread. The authors also evaluated the organoleptic
characteristics of the bread samples and the ability of the bread to crumble, as an indication of the
degree of bread staling.
Results: The authors identified the optimal dose of ω-3 PUFAs concentrate in a liposomal form
obtained from seal fat to fortify bread. Fatty acid analysis of the bread lipids confirmed the increase
in ω-3 fatty acids content in the final product. Increasing the content of ω-3 fatty acids
changed the ω-6/ω-3 ratio. The introduction of this additive into the bread recipe also augmented
the bread volume yield and crust color intensification, and reduced the degree of bread staling.
Moreover, the method used to incorporate the additive did not alter the bread taste and flavor.
Conclusion: The findings prove that micro- and nano-encapsulation allow obtaining a food product
with good organoleptic characteristics and consumer-desired product properties. The consumption
of functional food enriched with essential micronutrients, such as ω-3 PUFAs, is one of
the ways to prevent cardiovascular diseases.