Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by the copresence
of various dysmetabolic and pathological processes including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type
2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular complications. Because these conditions manifest themselves
differently in a given patient, the ensuing pathophysiological state varies from patient to patient.
Consequently, the order in which signs and symptoms manifest themselves can vary, making difficult to
establish cause-effect relationship, and efficacious treatment and prevention options. Furthermore, the
available therapeutic options do not necessarily apply in an effective manner to all patients due to the
modality of the syndrome’s onset and progression, and the fact that each patient presents different clinical
Results: Where do the metabolic disturbances originate? Genetic predisposition, maternal health, age,
and ethnicity are possible influential factors, which put individuals at higher risk for developing metabolic
defects. More recently, dietary factors and deficiency in key macro- and micro-nutrients have been
indicated as key players in the onset and progression of the disease. We revised all possible patents applying
to this topic. Aside from pharmacological agents used to treat specific medical conditions, no patents
were observed to be registered for specific dietary macro- and micro-nutrients.
Conclusion: The present review attempts to provide a framework to help the reader understand the
causes behind the development of the metabolic syndrome and its complication.