This review article is aimed to delineate the potential role of hormones in the treatment and
diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases with special emphasis on the nitric oxide (NO) involved mechanisms.
This review will also offer an overview on current and future hormone usages, pathophysiology,
clinical features, absorption mechanisms and adverse effects. The hormone therapies against cardiovascular
diseases as well as their treatment strategies, delivery routes and carriers were thoroughly discussed.
Ongoing and future basic and clinical research with hormone will provide important insights into efficient
treatment strategies against cardiovascular diseases. It was necessary to explore advanced delivery
systems, such as drug eluting stent, microneedles, nanotechnology and stem cell preconditioning,
for an efficient delivery of hormones against cardiovascular diseases. The future is enlightened with the
advent of novel, safer and more effective carriers for hormone delivery as well as learning how to
maximize the therapeutic efficacy against cardiovascular diseases.