Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Antivirals

Author(s): Marcela Krečmerová*

Journal Name: Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 17 , Issue 10 , 2017

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Objective: The review covers basic principles of the prodrug strategy applied to antiviral nucleoside drugs or drug candidates. Specific role of amino acids as promoieties is explained with respect to transport mechanisms, pharmacokinetics and a low toxicity of compounds. Synthetic approaches to the most important representatives (compounds under clinical investigations or available on the market) are described, including valacyclovir, valganciclovir, valomaciclovir stearate, valcyclopropavir, valtorcitabine, valopicitabine and several attempts to amino acid modifications of antiretroviral nucleosides.

Method: A special attention is paid to acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, where the phosphonic acid residue is esterified with a side-chain hydroxyl group of appropriate amino acid (serine, tyrosine) which can be used as single amino acid or as a part of dipeptides further modified on the terminal carboxyl function. The most advantageous pharmacokinetic profile and the best oral bioavailability were found in tyrosinebased prodrugs.

Results & Conclusion: Studies were performed successfully on 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyl]cytosine (cidofovir), 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine and some (R)-2- (phosphonomethoxy)propyl and 2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl derivatives including adefovir.

Keywords: Acyclic nucleoside analogues, antiherpetics, antiretrovirals, cidofovir, peptidomimetics, prodrugs, tyrosine esters, valacyclovir.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2017
Published on: 14 June, 2017
Page: [818 - 833]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666170216151601
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 76
PRC: 2