Background: Critically ill patients are very susceptible to a variety of disorders
and infections during hospitalization in Intensive Care Units [ICU]. Among these problems,
nosocomial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality.
Methods: Nosocomial pneumonias, specifically ventilator associated pneumonias have become
a major health care issue. The implication of oral care in hospital presents challenges
that can prevent or reduce the risk of nosocomial pneumonias in ICU. In this review article,
we reviewed the most important nosocomial pathogens which colonize the oral cavity and
causes severe infections during hospitalization in ICU.
Conclusion: Finally, we discuss that the prevention strategies against oral colonization of
nosocomial pathogens include classical methods and novel methods such as Photodynamic
therapy, NO based therapy, anti-virulence therapy and other new under investigation antimicrobial