Background: In many cancers, predictive factors are important for recognition of high-risk
patients and amongst individualizing treatment. The understanding of these mechanisms might provide
novel and useful approaches for preventing, diagnosing and treating different cancers.
Objective: The main objective of this review is to extend the current knowledge on the various tumor
biomarkers targeting prognosis and therapies of human cancers.
Methods: The present review is based on the extensive churning, analyzing and compilation of the
salient information on tumor biomarkers from the authentic published literature available in PubMed
and other scientific databases. The information also includes the implicative role of nucleic acids,
apolipoproteins, inflammatory biomolecules, receptors, DNA modification, carbohydrate antigens and
metabolite signatures as biomarkers for cancer.
Results: In this review, we have summarized some tumor biomarkers, which would improve prognostic
efficiency and accuracy among patients with cancer particularly for ovarian, lung, breast, melanoma and
Conclusion: This review provides in-depth insights of the use and importance of cancer biomarkers in
our understanding as well improve knowledge regarding cancer management in clinical practice that
will facilitate a more effective prognosis with least undesired systemic toxicity. However, development
and evaluation of cancer biomarkers demand a complete understanding of the molecular processes and
cellular mechanisms during the onset of cancer; as well how a little modification in regulatory
metabolites, proteins or genes can disrupt various kinds of cellular functions and lead to cancer.