An Account of Thermodynamic Entropy

An Account of Thermodynamic Entropy

The second law of thermodynamics is an example of the fundamental laws that govern our universe and is relevant to every branch of science exploring the physical world. This reference summarizes ...
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Spreading & Sharing is a Common Outcome of a Physical Function Levelling Down Available Energy

Pp. 107-111 (5)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681083933117010016

Author(s): Alberto Gianinetti


Entropy has been defined as a probabilistic function of energy spreading and sharing, and most often this description provides a straightforward way to conceptualize entropy. It is shown that, more in general, the spreading and sharing of energy is a common outcome of a physical function levelling down available energy. The latter, as formulated by a mathematical term called the “Boltzmann factor”, originates from the equilibration of forces at the microscopic level and is effected by the net levelling force that results as statistical outcome of all the microscopic forces and that always pushes the system towards the dynamic equilibrium. This net levelling force is the rationale for which work can be done at a macroscopic level, and its derivation from the microscopic world explains why it is linked to equilibration and therefore to entropy increase.


Energy dissipation, Free energy, Gradient equalization, Levelling function, Living organisms, Macroscopic homogeneity, Microstates equiprobability, Minimum possible level, Most probable distribution, Spreading and sharing, Unused heat, Work as change.