Background: Pernicious Anemia (PA), the most common cause of cobalamin deficiency
anemia worldwide, is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiologies involving complex environmental
and immunological factors. Although it was first reported by Addison in 1849 with subsequent
advances in understanding of pathogenesis and molecular biology, diagnosis of PA is still challenging
for clinicians because of its complexity and diverse clinical presentations.
Conclusion: Herein, we provide an overview of PA, mainly focusing on its scientific and practical aspects
in diagnosis. We also discuss the limitations of currently available diagnostic tools for the evaluation
of cobalamin deficiency and PA.