In this mini-review, the role of macrophage phenotypes in atherogenesis is considered. Recent studies
on distribution of M1 and M2 macrophages in different types of atherosclerotic lesions indicate that macrophages
exhibit a high degree of plasticity of phenotype in response to various conditions in microenvironment. The effect
of the accumulation of cholesterol, a key event in atherogenesis, on the macrophage phenotype is also discussed.
The article presents the results of transcriptome analysis of cholesterol-loaded macrophages revealing genes involved
in immune response whose expression rate has changed the most. It turned out that the interaction of
macrophages with modified LDL leads to higher expression levels of pro-inflammatory marker TNF-α and antiinflammatory
marker CCL18. Phenotypic profile of macrophage activation could be a good target for testing of
novel anti-atherogenic immunocorrectors. A number of anti-atherogenic drugs were tested as potential immunocorrectors
using primary macrophage-based model.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, macrophages, phenotype, transcriptome, activation, modified LDL, immunocorrectors, macrophage-based test.
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