Background: Endoplasmic reticulum is the major site for protein biosynthesis. Any perturbation in the
endoplasmic reticulum will compromise its functions and reduce its efficiency in protein biosynthesis. As a result,
misfolded proteins are produced and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum. This will result in endoplasmic
reticulum stress, which reduces the quantity and quality of the functional protein synthesized from the cell. Besides
that, the protein biosynthesis is also highly affected by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a condition
where the cell has excessive exogenous and endogenous radical oxygen species overwhelming the human body’s
antioxidant mechanisms. Recent researches have shown that endoplasmic reticulum stress has a strong relationship
with oxidative stress and both of them can form a vicious cycle that exacerbates endoplasmic reticulum
stress and oxidative stress. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress are harmful to human health since
they can disrupt cellular homoeostasis and damage cells.
Method: This work reported several studies that demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative
stress have a vital role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as diabetes and colitis.
Results: Further research is needed to develop the therapeutic strategies that resolve endoplasmic reticulum stress
and oxidative stress in order to treat these diseases.
Conclusion: Currently, Momordicacharantia attracts worldwide attentions due to its various beneficial effects as
the functional foods and can possibly help in treating endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.