Background: Synthesis and modification of cost-effective sorbents for removing heavy metals
from water resources is an area of significance. It had been reported that materials with biological
origins, such as agricultural and animal waste, are excellent alternatives to conventional adsorbents due
to their higher affinity, capacity and selectivity towards metal ions. These properties of biomaterials
help to reduce or detoxify metal ions concentration in contaminated water to acceptable regulatory
Objective: Synthesis of novel, efficient, cost effective, eco-friendly biomaterials for heavy metal adsorption
from water is still an area of challenge.
Method: In this comprehensive review, acompilation of patents as well as published articles is carried
out to outline the properties of different biomaterials based on their precursors along withdetailed description
of biomaterial morphology and various surface modification approaches.
Results: A detailed study of the performance of adsorbents and the role of physical and chemical modification
in terms of enhancing their potential for metal adsorption from water is compiled here. The factors
affecting adsorption behavior i.e., capacity and affinity of e biomaterials is also compiled.
Conclusion: This paper presents a concise review of reported studies on the synthesis and modification
of biomaterials, their use for heavy metal removal from waters and future prospects of this technology.