Background: The association of pathogenic viruses with obesity has now been well-known in both human
and animals. Globally, human obesity has become a serious problem leading to the emergence of multiple lifethreatening
diseases. Adenoviruses contribute a significant role in the induction of obesity by affecting various
pathways. Due to impaired immunity, obese individuals are more prone to nosocomial infections leading to complications
of obesity. In contrast, several other important factors contributing to human obesity are known.
Methods: Currently, many published reports showed strong evidence of the role and linkage of Ad36 infection in
human obesity. The Ad36 pathogenesis effect on the hepatic steatosis reduces leptin gene expression, reduced antibody
response in vaccination, reduces immune system, insulin sensitivity, increases glucose uptake, activates the
lipogenic and pro-inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue increases the level of Macrophage Chemo attractant
Protein-1 leading chronic inflammation and affect lipid metabolism.
Results: The E4-ORF1 gene of Ad36 play an important role in the induction of adipogenesis and regulation of adipocyte
differentiation and also known to activate the sensitizing effect of insulin. The use of E4-ORF1gene as a
ligand to develop new drugs against diabetes and the prevention of Ad36 infection by an effective vaccination will
attract researchers and open new area of research in the field of obesity and obesity-related multiple diseases.
Conclusion: Therefore, the identification and management of important contributory factors by identifying the regulation
of adipocyte differentiation leading to a chronic condition like adipogenesis and insulin resistance resulting
in obesity is an urgent requirement globally for human health.