Background: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health.
Aim: The analysis of influence of tobacco smoking on retina diseases, uveitis, optic neuropathies, and thyroidassociated
orbitopathy in adults and children.
Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, covering
the years 2000-2016.
Results: In adults, tobacco smoking is a strong risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, polypoidal choroidal
vasculopathy, uveitis and inflamed cystoid macular edema as well as Grave`s ophthalmopathy. Tobacco
smoking reduces thickness of the retina and choroid, plays a role in episcleritis, sclerits, tobacco optic neuropathy,
and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In children, maternal smoking is a significant risk factor for stages 3 and
4 retinopathy of prematurity, optic nerve hypoplasia among babies with a birth weight over 2500 g and thinner
retinal nerve fiber layer.
Conclusion: Tobacco smoking plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many posterior eye segment diseases
leading to blindness in adults and children.