Smoking and Eye Pathologies. A Systemic Review. Part II. Retina Diseases, Uveitis, Optic Neuropathies, Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy

Author(s): Małgorzata Nita, Andrzej Grzybowski

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 4 , 2017

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Abstract:

Background: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health.

Aim: The analysis of influence of tobacco smoking on retina diseases, uveitis, optic neuropathies, and thyroidassociated orbitopathy in adults and children.

Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, covering the years 2000-2016.

Results: In adults, tobacco smoking is a strong risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, uveitis and inflamed cystoid macular edema as well as Grave`s ophthalmopathy. Tobacco smoking reduces thickness of the retina and choroid, plays a role in episcleritis, sclerits, tobacco optic neuropathy, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In children, maternal smoking is a significant risk factor for stages 3 and 4 retinopathy of prematurity, optic nerve hypoplasia among babies with a birth weight over 2500 g and thinner retinal nerve fiber layer.

Conclusion: Tobacco smoking plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many posterior eye segment diseases leading to blindness in adults and children.

Keywords: Tobacco smoking, retinopathy, ocular inflammation, optic neuropathy, orbitopathy, adults, children.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2017
Page: [639 - 654]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170111095723
Price: $65

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