The template synthesis is a low cost, simple and versatile nanofabrication method to produce
cylindrical/tubular nanostructures with controllable dimensions such as length, diameter and aspect
ratio. This method utilizes nanoporous membranes such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) or
polycarbonate (PC) as templates which have nanosized specific, cylindrical and uniform inner pores
to be coated with the desired material. Template synthesized nanotubular structures have been produced
from variety of materials including ceramics, polymers and proteins for loading biologically
active molecules. Available procedures of material deposition into the template nanopores consist of
several techniques like wetting (melt or solution wetting), layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and sol-gel
chemistry. Template synthesis enables not only control of the geometry of the resulting nanostructures
but also provides nanovehicles having separated inner and outer surfaces which can be variously
functionalized. Tubular nanostructures fabricated by this method have numerous potential applications
including delivery of biologically active molecules such as drugs, gene, enzymes and proteins.
In this review we aimed to present up-to-date works on the template based synthesis which has
greatly facilitated the fabrication of polymer and protein tubular nanostructures, principally. The
strategies regarding the synthesis and designing of these promising tubular nanostructures together
with recent approaches relevant of drug delivery was also presented.
Keywords: Anodized aluminum oxide, Drug delivery, Layer-by-layer assembly, Sol-gel chemistry, Template wetting, Template
synthesis, Tubular nanostructures.
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