Non-motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease and Drug Therapies
Pp. 173-185 (13)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by its motor symptoms, namely rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia and postural instability. However, non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as sleep disturbance, pain, constipation, urinary problems and fatigue are integral to PD and are the leading cause of poor quality of life for both people with PD and their caregivers. Although NMS affect almost every patient, they remain under-recognized and under-treated. An evaluation of the treatment consequences of NMS in over 60% of patients revealed that NMS such as apathy, pain, sexual difficulties, bowel incontinence and sleep disorders may not be revealed to health care professionals because the patients are either embarrassed or unaware that the symptoms are linked to PD. This mini-review provides an overview of NMS in PD along with possible drug therapies.
Department of Community Health Medicine, Graduate School of Hyogo College of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Hospital of Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-Cho, Nishinomiya-City, Hyogo 663-8131, Japan.