The lack of supporting hard and soft tissues always prevents the rehabilitation with dental
implants. Among various hard and soft tissue augmentation procedures, autologous grafts have been
considered to be the gold standard. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow,
dental tissue and adipose tissue have been described as promising alternatives for bone regeneration in
the field of dental implantation. Mucosal cells, gingival fibroblasts and dental progenitor cells (DPS)
can enhance peri-implant soft tissue augmentation and regenerate periodontal tissues around dental implants.
Obtained from patients, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) are enriched in
autologous platelets, which contain a great deal of growth factors and cytokines that are conducive to
the regeneration of both hand and soft tissues around dental implants. Pharmaceutical treatments for osteoporosis
and diabetes should be locally applied with implant procedures to restrict the resorption of
autologous bone grafts and reduction of bone volume. Although autografts hold great potentials for dental
implants, new approaches should also be explored with minimally invasion donor sites methods such
as tissue engineering combined with autologous three factors and bio-3D printing involving selfassembling
Keywords: Biomaterial, autologous bone graft, dental implant, bone defect, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), platelet-rich
plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF).
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