Background: Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem, and its prevalence rate and socioeconomic burden
continue to increase. Intranasal steroid (INS) is the first treatment choice in the majority of patients, because of its
ability to effectively control allergic symptoms. However, patients and clinicians are concerned about the potential
adverse effects of prolonged INS use.
Methods: We performed to review for evaluating systemic and local safety of INS use, by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE,
and Cochrane Library database for identification of relevant articles.
Results: In the present study, the systemic bioavailabilities of several commercially available INSs were researched,
and then systemic safeties were reviewed with focus on suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and
their effects on pediatric growth. In addition, local adverse effects, such as, epistaxis and nasal septal perforation, were
investigated. Finally, the authors proposed some techniques in order to avoid these complications.
Conclusion: INSs offer a safe, effective means of treating allergic rhinitis in the short- and long-term with no or minimal
adverse systemic and local effects.