Background: The knowledge about optimal strategies for the research and development
in the field of nanomedicine for management of atherosclerosis which might be
claimed by the real world cardiology becomes of high importance.
Objective: This systematic review analysis is aiming to evaluate how emerging nanotechnologies
meet the needs of the real clinical practice in line with and contrary to expectations
of cardiology in the theranostics of the coronary atherosclerosis.
Methods: We investigated the available sources of the information published in PubMed/
Medline and others between January 1980 and August 2016. At least 512 bench studies and
bedside trials were explored and then examined for modular networking and clinical relevance
to the main three targets: (1) lumen stenosis, (2) (athero-)thrombosis, and (3) atherogenesis.
Results: We assigned 135 papers (a 26.37%; 377 articles were excluded because were not
in scope) with 120 studies for the special analysis through the prism of systems biomedicine.
We have identified 79 studies (65.83%) of nanotechnologies with a focus on atherogenesis
(cholesterol/ lipid metabolism and immune response), 23 studies (19.17%) targeting
lumen stenosis (medical devices), and 18 studies (15%) examining thrombosis with further
integrative assessment of the data array. There is a lack of solutions for lumen stenosis and
thrombosis as well as synergistic approaches such as multifunctional nanotechnologies to
reach all the expectations of the real clinical practice.
Conclusion: The number of developments in nanomedicine is surging today, but without
clear destination for the real world cardiovascular medicine particularly for imaging and
therapy of atherosclerosis.