New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

Indexed in: EBSCO.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for regulating plasma sodium ion concentration and arterial blood pressure in the body. The system involves several ...
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Renal Physiology and Immune System: The Role of Renin-Angiotensin System, Nitric Oxide and Catecholamines

Pp. 232-249 (18)

Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Danielle Yuri Arita, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe, Juliana Dineia Perez Brandao, Lys Angela Favaroni Mendes Salgado Ribeiro, Danielle Sanches Aragao and Dulce Elena Casarini


The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) affects both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Since hyperactive RAS has been associated with several diseases, the contribution of tissue RAS to the progression of immune and non-immune conditions has been considered in the recent years. It has a well-established role in fibrinogenesis, leukocyte infiltration, activity of T cells and has been shown to be chemotactic to macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by many cell types involved in immunity and inflammation and plays an important role in hypotension and regulates the functional activity, growth and death of many immune and inflammatory cell types. Current evidences suggest that catecholamines (CAs) play a key role in activating and limiting inflammatory and immune reactions. In this chapter, we will discuss some aspects related to the role of these molecules in inflammatory process and immunologically mediated conditions.


Catecholamines, HPA axis, Immune system, Nitric oxide, Renal physiology, Renin-angiotensin system, Sympathetic nervous system.


Rua Botucatu, 740 – 2° andar, Department of Medicine/Nephrology Division, Vila Clementino – Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil, CEP 04023-900.