New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

Indexed in: EBSCO.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for regulating plasma sodium ion concentration and arterial blood pressure in the body. The system involves several ...
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Renin Angiotensin System: Old System with New Different Components

Pp. 3-14 (12)

Danielle Yuri Arita, Rosana Inácio dos Reis, Bruno Sevá Pessôa and Dulce Elena Casarini


Recently, the continuing and increasing interest in the renin angiotensin system (RAS) after discovery of new peptides and enzymes, has been stimulating us to review the new concepts described in the literature. The classical RAS is a system in which renin acts on angiotensinogen (Agt) to form angiotensin I (Ang I) that is cleaved to the active peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The Ang II pharmacological actions occur after their interaction with Ang II type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R; AT2R). In the last decade, a new concept of local tissue RAS systems has been described in different organs, and also intracellular RAS has been stated, allowing expansion of the concept of functions of this system as endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and intracrine. This first chapter provides brief overview on the history of the RAS components, circulating and tissue RAS, and outlines the physiological functions of the RAS major active substance, Ang II. Here, we also describe other bioactive angiotensins, such as Ang III, Ang IV, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-12), angiotensin A and alamandine. Moreover, we report the studies on ACE2 and chymase, enzymes identified during the last years. The recent advances in the understanding of the RAS will provide new opportunities to treat and prevent hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.


ACE, ACE2, Alamandine, Angiotensin A, Angiotensin converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin I-converting enzyme, Angiotensin II, Angiotensin III, Angiotensin IV, Angiotensin (1-7), Angiotensin (1-12), Chymases, Enzymes, RAS, Receptors, Renin, Renin angiotensin system.


Rua Botucatu, 740 – 2° andar, Department of Medicine/Nephrology Division, Vila Clementino – São Paulo/SP, Brazil CEP 04023-900