Stem cells (SCs) are capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Human mesenchymal
stem cells (MSCs) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which can be obtained from multiple
sources, are suitable for application in regenerative medicine and transplant therapy. The aim of this review
is to evaluate the potential of genomic and proteomic profiling analysis to identify the differentiation
of MSCs and HSCs towards osteoblast and odontoblast lineages. In vitro differentiation towards both
of these lineages can be induced using similar differentiation factors. Gene profiling cannot be utilised to
confirm the lineages of these two types of differentiated cells. Differentiated cells of both lineages express
most of the same markers. Most researchers have detected the expression of genes such as ALP,
OCN, OPN, BMP2 and RUNX2 in osteoblasts and the expression of the DSPP gene in odontoblasts.
Based on their cell-type specific protein profiles, various proteins are differentially expressed by osteoblasts
and odontoblasts, except for vimentin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C, which are
expressed in both cell types, and LOXL2 protein, which is expressed only in odontoblasts.