Background: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal
microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of
diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health
benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property.
Objective: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects
for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes.
Methods: We searched Pub Med and Science Direct by using “Probiotics” and “Diabetes” for searching
the studies aiming the application of probiotics and the beneficial effects of probiotics in diabetes
prevention and control.
Results: It has been shown that probiotics can increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune responses
by modulating intestinal microbiota and decreasing the inflammatory reactions and oxidative
stress. Recent evidences show that probiotics influences the host through modulating intestinal permeability
and mucosal immune response, manipulating eating behaviors by appetite-regulating hormones
and controlling gut endocannabinoid (eCB) system that is believed to be associated with inflammation
and diabetes. Moreover, modulating the intestinal microbiota by probiotics controls host metabolism
by affecting energy extraction from food and by biochemically converting molecules derived from the
host or from gut microbes themselves.
Conclusion: Experimental and clinical evidences support the hypothesis that the modulation of the gut
microbiota by probiotics could be effective in prevention and management of diabetes.