Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recognized as a leading cause of various
health complications, affecting many organs including the kidneys. The aim of the current study
was to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the renal dysfunction which is associated
Methods: MetS was induced in male Wistar rats by adding 10% fructose to their drinking water, as
well as placing the animals on a high fat salt diet for 12 weeks. Pentoxifylline was then administered
) orally starting from the 9th week for a duration of 4 weeks.
Results: Despite having no significant effect the developed hyperinsulinemia associated with MetS,
pentoxyfylline administration in the last four weeks alleviated the proteinuria associated with fructose,
fat and salt (12 weeks)-induced MetS in rats. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of
pentoxifylline, its effects on inflammatory mediators and enzymes was explored. Pentoxifylline significantly
decreased urine 8-isoprostane levels as well as the kidney inducible nitric oxide synthase
(iNOS) levels in MetS animals. An investigation of kidney glutathione reductase enzyme revealed a
significantly decreased activity in MetS animals treated with pentoxifylline compared with untreated
MetS rats. Pentoxifylline had no effect on the elevated kidney glutathione peroxidase found in MetS
Conclusion: The short-term administration of pentoxifylline in rats with MetS, was found to ameliorate
proteinuria and the low grade inflammation which are associated with MetS.