The research of efficacious non-invasive therapies for the treatment of brain diseases
represents a huge challenge, as people affected by disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) will
significantly increase. Moreover, the blood-brain barrier is a key factor in hampering a number of
effective drugs to reach the CNS. This review is therefore focusing on possible interventions of
nanomedicine-based approaches in selected diseases affecting the CNS. A wide overview of the most
outstanding results on preclinical evaluations of the potential of nanomedicine in brain diseases (i.e.
brain tumor, Alzheimer, Parkinson, epilepsy and others) is given, with highlights on the data with
relevant interest and real possibility in translation from bench-to-bedside. Moreover, a critical
evaluation on the rationale in planning nanosystems to target specific brain pathologies is described,
opening the path to a more structured and pathology-tailored design of nanocarriers.