Medical and Dental Implications of Down Syndrome: A Review Part 1: General and Craniofacial Characteristic

Author(s): Batool Ghaith, Mawlood B. Kowash, Manal El-Halabi

Journal Name: Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs
Continued as Applied Drug Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs

Volume 3 , Issue 3 , 2016

Graphical Abstract:


Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of three chromosomes instead of two, specifically chromosome No. 21. The special needs status of DS individuals makes them more prone to several medical conditions such as congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal tract anomalies, immunodeficiency, visual impairment, skeletal defects, audiological dysfunction, seizures, acute leukaemia and thyroid disorders. A thorough knowledge of the unusual medical and orofacial abnormalities and their implications is crucial for a successful dental preventive and treatment planning. This paper provides an updated review of DS definition, etiology, epidemiology, medical problems and dentofacial abnormalities.

Keywords: Down syndrome, craniofacial anomalies, atlanto-axial joint instability, obstructive sleep apnoea.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2016
Published on: 21 December, 2016
Page: [151 - 158]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/2213476X03666160901125732
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 36
PRC: 1