Pharmacological Management Options to Prevent and Reduce Ischemic Hemorrhagic Transformation

Author(s): Wing Mann Ho, Cesar Reis, Onat Akyol, Gokce Yilmaz Akyol, Richard Applegate II, Gary Stier, Robert Martin, John H. Zhang*

Journal Name: Current Drug Targets

Volume 18 , Issue 12 , 2017

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common and natural complication after acute ischemic stroke. The only FDA-approved treatment so far for acute ischemic stroke is rapid reperfusion with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). Although it has been shown to exaggerate the risk and severity of HT and to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss the multifactorial pathophysiology of hemorrhagic transformation, promising interventional targets, and pharmacological treatment options.

Results and Conclusion: Understanding HT is essential to restore cerebral blood flow to ischemic brain by reperfusion therapy without causing this complication and additional brain injury. Therefore methods for the prevention and treatment of HT are needed. Although experimental studies showed promising results, clinical translation remains unsatisfactory to date.

Keywords: Cerebral ischemia, conversion, hemorrhagic transformation, prevention, stroke, treatment.

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Article Details

Year: 2017
Page: [1441 - 1459]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160818115850
Price: $65

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PDF: 61