Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent brain tumor. Despite
recent advances in treatment approaches the prognosis remains poor, with a median overall survival
of 14.6 months. Immunotherapy is the subject of ongoing research and its benefit is becoming evident
in other malignancies. Immune check-points such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4
(CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor (PD-1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) reduce
Objective: To clarify the role of immune check point inhibitors in GBM management.
Methods: Preclinical and clinical trials of immune check-point inhibitors in GBM were obtained by
searching for English peer-reviewed articles on PubMed databases, trials registered on clincaltrials.
gov and abstracts recently presented at international congresses.
Results: Immune check point inhibitors may be of critical importance for the design of future
immunotherapy approaches in GBM management.
Conclusion: Immune check-point inhibitors should be considered a promising treatment option in