The gut–liver axis model has often explained liver disease physiopathology. Among the latter
we can mention Non-Alcoholic Liver Steatosis (NAFLD), Liver Steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis.
In this frame an altered Intestinal Permeability (IP) is the gate for antigenic/toxic substances
from gut lumen until target organs such as liver in NAFLD. Altered intestinal permeability was discovered
almost forty years ago as consequence of acute and chronic alcohol ingestion. Alcohol Liver Disease (ALD) is a
systemic pathology whose beginning and end belong to the intestine. Several recent evidences from the literature show
how gut microbiota composition can be altered by alcohol, affects IP and can be modulated by several nonpharmacological
and pharmacological agents, becoming the target for ALD treatment. In this review we describe the definition
of ALD, gut microbiota composition in healthy and ALD, definition and role of IP in ALD physiopathology and
emerging evidences on gut microbiota modulation in ALD treatment from preliminary clinical and non-clinical studies.
Keywords: Gut microbiota, alcohol, intestinal permeability, lipopolysaccharide, antibiotics, probiotics.
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