Despite the numerous challenges associated with the application of
nanotechnology in neuroscience, it promises to have a significant impact on our
understanding of how the nervous system works, how it fails in disease, and the
development of earlier and less-invasive diagnostic procedures so we can intervene
in the pre-clinical stage of neurological disease before extensive neurological
damage has taken place. Ultimately, both the challenges and opportunities that
nanotechnology presents stem from the fact that this technology provides a way to
interact with neural cells at the molecular level. In this review we provide a
neurobiological overview of key neurological disorders, describe the different types
of nanomaterials in use and discuss their current and potential uses in neuroscience.
We also discuss the issue of toxicity in these nanomaterials. This review presents many of the different
applications that advances in nanotechnology are having in the field of neurological sciences, especially
the high impact they are having in the development of new treatment modalities for neurological
disorders that will induce the expected physiological response while minimizing undesirable secondary
effects. In conclusion, we weigh in on what the promises and challenges are for future development in
this groundbreaking field.