Introduction: Atherothrombosis and coronary artery disease affect more
than 13 million individuals only in the United States, about 8 millions in Europe and
are the major causes of death worldwide. In particular chronic stable angina impairs
patient quality of life, is associated with an important health spending and increased
patient mortality; it is a prominent symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD), the
latter being prevalent worldwide in patients. A key role in pathophysiology of cardiovascular
acute events is played by activated platelets. Aspirin and adenosine
diphosphate antagonist in addition to it is recommended for 1 year for reduction of
cardiovascular events in patients with prior myocardial infarction with a weak recommendation
to continue thereafter. P2Y12 receptor antagonists, in addition to aspirin,
have been shown in the last years, to reduce ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome
but their role in secondary prevention is still new and unclear. The aim of our paper is to review
the long-term effect of therapy with ticagrelor on the basis of recent evidence based data.
Methods: We performed an online search on the major search engines. All the randomized controlled
trials were summarized in the table.
Results: We included in our paper six randomized controlled trials and we mentioned about ten post –
hoc analysis, sub studies and registries. All studies included the type the therapy and a mid or long term
clinical follow up.
Conclusions: The studies reported in our paper and in particular PEGASUS – TIMI 54 study showed the
merit to placing attention of prevention secondary ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome in the
context of treatment with dual anti – platelet therapy; it proved a clinical benefit in patients treated with ticagrelor
(60 mg x 2) for 3 years. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these results cannot be generalized to
patients with higher bleeding risk or low ischemic risk. In fact prolonged therapy with ticagrelor 60 mg in
combination with aspirin could be considered valuable in patients with repeated acute ischemic events or
with several coronary revascularizations over time (especially in patients with lower bleeding risk).