Cardioregulatory Functions of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in Insects

Author(s): Szymon Chowański, Jan Lubawy, Arkadiusz Urbański, Grzegorz Rosiński

Journal Name: Protein & Peptide Letters

Volume 23 , Issue 10 , 2016

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Abstract:

Neuropeptides and peptide hormones from non-neuronal tissues play important roles in the regulation of insect life. In recent years, the rapid development of analytical techniques has contributed to the discovery of more than 30 families of peptide neurohormones that differ structurally and functionally. Although the discovery of the first neuropeptide occurred almost forty years ago, our knowledge about their full mode of activities, primary structures, synthesis, interactions with receptors or places of action increases gradually and there is still much to unravel. However, one thing is certain. Neuropeptides perform an extremely diverse range of activities. One neuropeptide can affect physiology in different ways. The neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters, co-transmitters as well as neuromodulators. Most of these molecules have diverse pleiotropic activities on different tissues and organs. Their mode of action includes allatotropic, myotropic, cardiotropic or gonadotropic effects. Activity of some of them is conserved among most of insect species, indicating crucial roles in insect physiology and age of these systems. On the other hand, activity of other neuropeptides and peptide hormones is highly diverse, depending on species or even stages of development. This may indicate that some compounds have taken over the function of others. Insect heart work is regulated in a very complex manner. Myocardium activity undergoes regulation both, by nervous and hormonal way. What is important is that these same compounds can influent on heart as both nervous and hormonal factors. For that reason, the regulation of myocardium is still unclear. In this paper, we summarize the existing knowledge regarding cardioactivity and the involvement of insect neurohormones and some peptide hormones from non-neural tissues to regulation of insect myocardium.

Keywords: Insect neuropeptides, peptide hormones, cardioactive properties, insect heart.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 10
Year: 2016
Page: [913 - 931]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/0929866523666160728102842
Price: $65

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