Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome characterized by reproductive
and metabolic implications. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are considered
first-line treatment for women affected by PCOS. Pharmacologic treatments target the hormonal
and metabolic dysregulations associated to the disease such as insulin resistance,
anovulation, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities.
Objective: To focus on the role of inositol isoforms, as well as Mediterranean and ketogenic
diets, as possible therapeutic strategies in PCOS women.
Method: Narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches
of computerized databases.
Results: Accumulating evidence suggests that two inositol isoforms, myo- and D-chiro-,
may play a pivotal role in re-addressing both hormonal and metabolic parameters toward
homeostasis, counteracting the symptoms and signs typical of this syndrome. In addition,
studies focused on Mediterranean and ketogenic diet provided positive results in patients
affected by obesity and type 2 diabetes, so these dietetic regimens could represent a fascinating dietetic treatment
for the management of PCOS.
Conclusion: Both the isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients
with PCOS. In spite of accumulating evidence, it is currently not possible to draw firm conclusion(s) about the
efficacy of these interventions considering the severe bias due to different samples size, dose, and duration of
intervention among the published studies on this topic. Furthermore, future longitudinal cohort studies along with
prospective interventional trials may contribute to better clarify the role of Mediterranean and ketogenic diets in
the treatment of PCOS.