Background: Neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders are multifactorial diseases (i.e.,
involving neurodevelopmental, genetic, age or environmental factors) characterized by an abnormal
development that affects neuronal function and integrity. Recently, an increasing number of studies revealed
that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may be involved in the etiology of cognitive disorders as
Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington‘s diseases, Schizophrenia and Autism spectrum disorders.
Methods: From an extensive search in bibliographic databases of peer-reviewed research literature,
we identified relevant published studies related to specific key words such as memory, cognition,
neurodegenerative disorders, neurogenesis and miRNA. We then analysed, evaluated and summerized
scientific evidences derived from these studies.
Results: We first briefly summarize the basic molecular events involved in memory, a process inherent to
cognitive disease, and then describe the role of miRNAs in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and
memory. Secondly, we provide an overview of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in the pathogenesis of
different neurocognitive disorders, and lastly discuss the feasibility of miRNA-based therapeutics in the
treatment of these disorders.
Conclusion: This review highlights the molecular basis of neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders by
focusing on the impact of miRNAs dysregulation in these pathological phenotypes. Altogether, the
published reports suggest that miRNAs-based therapy could be a viable therapeutic alternative to current
treatment options in the future.