Mesenchymal stem cells are spindle-like plastic adherent multipotent
cells that can differentiate into multiple specialized cell types including
osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They were isolated from many
tissues and organs and they contribute to the maintenance and regeneration
of several tissues. Besides their ability of self-renewal, they have recently
been shown to have a clinical/therapeutic potential particularly for their immunomodulatory
properties. Indeed recent studies suggested a potential application
of MSCs for the treatment of experimental autoimmune disorders.
It was demonstrated that their effects are in part mediated by the release of
soluble factors or extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles,
stimulating or inhibiting target cells. This review will describe the secretome of MSCs,
pointing the attention on the components relevant for their immunodulatory activities.
Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Secretome, Soluble Factors, Immunomodulation, Extracellular Vesicles, Exosome.
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